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HIST103 Exam Vocab.pdf

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University of British Columbia
HIST 103
Jeffrey Byrne

HIST103-101 1st Quiz Topics List ▯ ▯ Scramble forAfrica1884- 1910—The Scramble forAfrica was symbolic of European colonial- ism and imperialism in the 19 century. It proved that technology and the industrial revolution could win wars against non-industrialized powers. European powers—UK, France, Germany, Italy, took part in the colonization of the continent ofAfrica taking it for resources and also pow- er amongst other nations. ▯ Berlin Conference, Nov. 1884 - Feb. 1885—European powers discussed how to divideAfrica between them without any consultation of the other countries. It set the rules for imperialism and was the paradigm of European power. Set a mass immigration of whites intoAfrican countries and agreements to not trade withAfrica, guns, technology etc. ▯ Cecil Rhodes—Cecil Rhodes founded the largest diamond mining company inAfrica. Rhodes born in England believed in the colonialism and imperialism ofAfrican countries. He believed in sending the poor peasantry away (intoAfrica) and to keep the homeland filled with elite. He ex- panded British powers in the continent and was a successful and wealth businessman who want- ed a world of colony of worlds. ▯ Civilising mission—The Civilizing Mission was the belief that going intoAfrica was the philo- sophically and morally right thing to do. Justified by Christianity, Europeans thought that they were the better race and had to show them a greater way of life. Individuals went toAfrica on a mission to ▯ Social Darwinism—Aphilosophical and scientific movement that promoted slavery ofAfrican and dark skinned peoples. Social Darwinism believed in racial order and that white civilization was better than black civilization as they were not equal and blacks were lesser. Saying nature was always in a state of conflict and that only colonization could civilize people. Defensive Developmentalism—developing a country economically, socially and politically in order to keep up with European powers and to not be colonized. This was particularly true for the Japanese who quickly industrialized through the Meiji Restoration. They took over parts ofAsia and wanted to keep their culture and not be a pawn of Europe. ▯ Meiji Restoration—America went into Japanese boarders and forced them to open up their boarders to trade with them. Was the start of Japanese want for imperialism in all ofAsia, was showing of Japans ability to quickly industrialize as a people. ▯ Golden age of globalization—the expansion of colonial power by European countries. The es- tablishing of world currency—gold standard, the progress of industrialization happening first in Britain.Also an age in where immigration grew and many Europeans went to N.America, Africa,Asians came to N.America. Standardized time zones invented. ▯ Suez Canal—steam ships moving people around faster and stronger canal from Europe directly to India instead of having to sail all aroundAfrica. ▯ Gold standard—first used by Britain where comparing currency to gold so countries do not ar- gue which currency is more valuable. Gold stabilizes international markets, wont be able to hide inflation. Much of the money goes into already rich countries and those developing don’t get any. ▯ Hegemon/Hegemony—Acountry that is dominant in indirect means (social, political, economi- cal) like the US, China. Britain pre-WWI is the world banker + controls 25% of all trade. Can influence countries without knowing or wanting. ▯ Classical liberalism—response to socialism and the far left, grounds liberal thought in the agency of the individual and individual freedoms, equity and access to necessities in life. ▯ Karl Marx—Wrote Das Capital and the Communist Manifesto. Saying the workers revolution will never be avoided. Class struggle is exposed as political structure. ▯ brought the idea of social change to urban areas, the beginnings of union organizing, rights for workers, protection and regulations. ▯ Balance of Power—keeps checks and balances, making sure one power is stronger than the oth- er. The death Franz Ferdinand shows a break in the balance of power when WWI is triggered. Ultimatum occurs and Russians, British, French backing serbs (black hand killers), Germans backing Hungary (death of their archduke). There are winners and losers. ▯ Era of nationalism—countries beginning to mobilize armies, build a greater sense of nationali- ty, establishing of seventy and boarders. ▯ Entente—British, French, RussiansAlliance which would later includeAmerica in a more phys- ical way, but also supported European effort in giving aid to the French BritishAlliance. ▯ Germany’s “blank cheque”—given to astro-hungary to expect a war to be coming wanted to be the ones to strike first as they knew Russia was mobilizing and they were ready to attack. Was going to war regardless gave unwavering support to Hungarians. ▯ France first by first going through Belgium, after that fighting the eastern front war against Rus- sia. But it failed as they did not expect the involvement of the British. ▯ “Realist” approach to international relations (or “Realpolitik”)—focused on hard power and actions between states. States are inherently self-centred and are only interested in their own pri- orities. States are in a constant state of anarchy, geopolitical powers important. ▯ The “German Question”—what to do with Germany after the war, answered in the treaty of Versailles, with 2 struggling ideas where France wanted hard punishment and for Germany to be completely crippled, as opposed toAmerican position of allowing them to prosper. ▯ Conference/Treaty of Versailles (or Paris)—answered the German question, by coming to a middle ground of reparations from Germany to France and UK.Austro-Hungary cant have al- liance with Germany.Alsace-Loraine taken from Germany, country broken up and League of Na- tions was born. Self-determination was also taken from conference but the French were not hap- py with its outcome. ▯ Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points—Creation of global order (League of Nations—something America didn’t join) self-determination (America didn’t practice) driven by political ideology (liberal internationalism) expressed economic liberty for all countries. Expressed that democracy will lead to peace, “peace without victory” didn’t want to punish Germany. ▯ Imperial Potato Office—first office and international place that held statistics and social sci- ence gathering first of its kind in the world for the use of the international community. ▯ George Clemenceau—the French leader during the treaty of Versailles who wanted strict pun- ishment against Germans and was afraid of another German attack. Was not happy with Paris Peace Conference, and predicted WWII with the rise of the Germany. ▯ Realpolitik—the studies of the powers that hard power, German word taken from the example of Bismarck practical over moral or ideological considerations. Unified Germany over anything, logic over morality, practical over ideological considerations. Based on a power struggle. ▯ Reparations—made Germany pay reparations to France and the UK because the US didn’t want to forgive any debt, this would then give Germans a hard time to pay it making the Reichstag inflate and them to turn to a leader in hard economic times…Hitler. ▯ League of Nations—an association of countries established in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles to promote international cooperation and achieve international peace and security. It was power- less to stop Italian, German, and Japanese expansionism leading to World War II and was re- placed by the United Nations in 1945. ▯ “Total war”—Phenomena of global war, exhausting all efforts for the war, The Western Front/Trench warfare—the zone of fighting in western Europe in World War I, in which the German army engaged the armies to its west, i.e., France, the UK (and its dominions), and, from 1917, the US. For most of the war the front line stretched from the Vosges mountains in eastern France throughAmiens to Ostend in Belgium. ▯ U-Boat campaign—-military technology used by the Germans, a underwater vehicle that at- tacked merchant and naval forces. ▯ American isolationism— a political stand point where the country completely separated itself from the conflicts and other affairs of foreign countries. Especially after WW1 the death toll pushedAmerican citizens to become isolationist. ▯ Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, March 1918—Peace, Bread, Land, Lenin agreed not to continue to attack Germany if they did not ▯ The “lost generation”—the entire number of men lost during the extent of the First World War, leaving many women behind and pregnant, an entire group of injured men coming back to their country deformed and limbless, caused systemic problems in the household of abuse. Article X (10) of the League Covenant—a doctrine stating that this nation will assist with league member if the league member is attacked. Collective security. Very hard to practice. Was the main reason to why Woodrow Wilson did not want to join. ▯ Proposed racial clause in League Covenant— Racial Equality Proposal was a Japanese pro- posal put forward at the PP 1919. The intention of the Japanese was to secure equality of their naturals and the equality for members of the L. of N. - not intended to be a universal principle. ▯ “Cultural internationalism” and “transnationalism”—a form of nationalism in which the na- tion is defined by a shared culture. It is an intermediate position b/w ethnic nationalism on one hand and liberal nationalism on the other.Asocial phenomena, 1920s, the social understanding of the League of Nations Cultural Exchanges globally, suffrages make a international goal for peace. ▯ Women’s movements and the promotion of international peace—a transnational idea and movement of suffragettes and the idea of power through and challenging realism in international thought. Wanted the vote for women and to have the right to work. ▯ The Einstein-Freud correspondence—letters from Einstein to Freud talking intellectuals meet- ing to drive the question of have to end war and the league of nations of how to end war. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin— a Russian communist revolutionary, politician & political theories. He lead as the leader of Soviet Union during the October Revolt 1917 to his death 1924. Key indi- vidual during the revolt and organize the Russian people to rebel against Tsar and his provisional government establish as new government, the communist government based on Marx’s theory. ▯ Lev Trotskii—the person most likely to succeed Lenin, ran the RedArmy and was the second ▯and man to Lenin. Joseph Stalin—-Lenin’s successor and number two man while in office. General Secretary of the Central Committee in 1922.After Lenin’s death, Stalin expand his role as leader and elimi- nate all who opposed him. Launched the 5 Year Plan that collectivization and industrialized Russian economy - Great Purge ▯ Comintern (Communist International)—communist international organization set up by lenin and it was his thoughts to having communism spread around the world, was reactionary to the right wing international organizing of the UK andAmerica. ▯ Lenin’s one step back, New Economic Policy (NEP)—the idea of letting in foreign capital in Russia and allowed the independence of the market to take place must take a step back toward capitalism in order to have the central planning of communism. ▯ Stalin’s policy of “socialism in one country”—After having Chinese communist turn against him Stalin said that if communism was to work Russia must first focus on achieving communism or socialism in their state before heading out the make communism in other.Against the com- minturn. ▯ Ho Chi Minh—Vietnamese political leader that joined the comminturn, believed in the anti-im- perialist message of communism and wanted to collectively organize a communist system in Asia.Agreed China backed up Vietnam. ▯ Mao Zedong—supporter of communism, studied Lenin and interpreted and the world was shocked assuming that communism would occur in industrialized places, but it happened in Vietnam and not the rise of proletariat the rise of the peasants. ▯ Kuomintang Party in China turns on Communists, 1927—party in china with radicals on both side with the principle of keeping Chinese nationalism with two different idea—the com- Taiwan but thes supported by the soviets and ran out the conservative right wing capitalist to ▯ Pan-Africanism—an ideology and movement that encourages the solidarity ofAfricans world- wide.Asserts that the faith of allAfricans are intertwined EmpoweredAfricans through, initial no confrontational means. ▯ Pan-Islamism—-a nationalist ideology celebrating the glories ofArab civilization, the language & literature ofArabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in theArab world. Primary goal was to remove Western influences after the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. ▯ Zionism—-a form of nationalism of Jews & Jewish culture that support a Jewish state outlined in the Bible - highly religious. Theoder Hertz often credited for the creation of the Zionist movement. They desired the land in Palestine in their “holy land”. ▯ W.E.B. Du Bois— Harvard educated black rights advocate in the US; found the NAACP; he or- ganize the first Pan -African conference parallel to Versailles, however, many of these confer- ences were controlled by government regulation. ▯ Marcus Garvey— confrontational opposition in relation to Du Bois; moved to New York, began a newspaper & shipping business (The Black Star Line) method of transport and trade for black businesses. ▯ David Ben Gurion—-a Israeli statesman, the was main founder and 1st Prime Minister of Israel. Zionist leader, struggled for an independent state within Palestine. Was part of Israelis declara- tion of Independent and was leader during theArab-Israel War. ▯ League of Nations Mandate— The two sides had different interpretations of this agreement. The formal objective of the League of Nations Mandate system was to administer parts of the defunct Ottoman Empire, which had been in control of the Middle East since the 16th century, "until such time as they are able to stand alone.” In the event the U.K. and France reneged on the deal and divided up the area under the Sykes-PicotAgreement in an act of betrayal in the opinion of theArabs. ▯ Mandate—a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Southern Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948. During the First World War anArab uprising and British campaign led by General EdmundAl- lenby the British Empire commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force drove the Turks out of the Levant, a part of which was the Sinai and Palestine Campaign. The United Kingdom agreed in the Hussein-McMahon correspondence that it would honourArab independence if they revolt- ed against the Ottomans. ▯ Syrian Mandate— was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. ▯ Egyptian Wafd - was a nationalist liberal political party in Egypt. It was said to be Egypt's most popular and influential political party for a period in the 1920s and 30s. During this time, it was instrumental in the development of the 1923 constitution, and supported moving Egypt from dy- nastic rule to a constitutional monarchy, where power would be wielded by a nationally-elected parliament. The party was dissolved in 1952, after the 1952 Egyptian Revolution. ▯ Syrian Revolt, 1925-27—On 1 January 1925, the State of Syria was born from a French merger of the States of Damascus andAleppo. Lebanon and theAlawi State were not included.[4][6] Perhaps inspired by the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1921), the Great Syrian Revolt be- gan in the countryside of Jabal al-Druze. Led by Sultan al-Atrash as a Druze uprising,[6] the movement was adopted by a group of Syrian nationalists led byAbd al-Rahman Shahbandar and spread to the states ofAleppo and Damascus.[2][7] Lasting from July 1925 to June 1927, it was an anti-French, anti-imperialist response to five years of French rule;[7] to the Druze it was not a movement toward Syrian unity, but simply a protest against French rule Italian invasion of Ethiopia, 1935-36—was a colonial war that started in October 1935 and ended in May 1936. The war was fought between the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) and the armed forces of the Ethiopian Empire (also known at the time as Abyssinia). Politically, the war is best remembered for exposing the inherent weakness of the League of Nations. TheAbyssinia Crisis in 1935 is often seen as a clear demonstration of the in- effectiveness of the League. Both Italy and Ethiopia were member nations and yet the League was unable to control Italy or to protect Ethiopia when Italy clearly violated the League's own Article X. Panama Canal opening, 1914— The Panama Canal ship canal in Panama that connects theAt- lantic Ocean (via the Caribbean Sea) to the Pacific Ocean. France began work on the canal in 1881, but had to stop. The United States took over the project in 1904, and took a decade to complete the canal, which was officially opened onAugust 15, 1914. One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects ever undertaken, the Panama Canal shortcut greatly reduced the amount of time taken for ships to travel between theAtlantic and Pacific Oceans, enabling them to avoid the lengthy, hazardous Cape Horn route around the southernmost tip of SouthAmerica via the Drake Passage or Strait of Magellan. The shorter, faster, safer route to the U.S. West Coast and to nations in and around the Pacific Ocean allowed those places to become more inte- grated with the world economy. ▯ All-America Cables company— In 1867 JamesA. Scrymser's International Ocean Telegraph Company laid the first line from Florida to Cuba, 235 miles. In 1878 Scrymser incorporated the Mexican Cable Company, and the following year the Central and SouthAmerican Cable Compa- ny, the predecessors ofAllAmerica Cables, Inc. The names were changed shortly afterwards to the Mexican Telegraph Company and the Central and SouthAmerican Telegraph Company, and the cable routes were expanded over the years to link the US to all of SouthAmerica. ▯ AmericanAssociated Press (AP)—TheAssociated Press is anAmerican multinational non- profit news agency headquartered in New York City. TheAP is a non-profit cooperative owned by its contributing newspapers, radio and television stations in the United States, all of which contribute stories to theAP and use material written by its staff journalists. In 1935,AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken. This gaveAP a major advantage over other news media outlets. While the first network was only between New York, Chicago and San Francisco, eventuallyAP had its network across the whole United States. In 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. United States thatAP had been violating the Sherman AntitrustAct by prohibiting member newspapers from selling or providing news to nonmember organizations as well as making it very difficult for nonmember newspapers to join theAP. In 1982, satellites began transmitting news photography. ▯ International Telegraph Union— a specialized agency of the United Nations that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.[1] The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, and assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards. ▯ Radio Corporation ofAmerica (RCA)—RCACorporation, founded as the Radio Corporation ofAmerica, was anAmerican electronics company in existence from 1919 to 1986. ▯ International Radio-telegraph Union (IRU)—After World War I began inAugust 1914, radio traffic across theAtlantic Ocean increased dramatically after the westernAllies cut the German transatlantic telegraph cables. Germany,Austria-Hungary, and their allies in Europe (the Central Powers) maintained contact with neutral countries in theAmericas via long-distance radio com- munications, as well as telegraph cables owned by neutral countries such as the Netherlands and Denmark. In 1917 the U.S. Government took charge of the patents owned by the major compa- nies involved in radio manufacture in the US to devote radio technology to the war effort.All production of radio equipment was allocated to the U.S.Army, U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps, and the U.S. Coast Guard. The War Department and the Navy Department sought to maintain a Federal monopoly of all uses of radio technology. The wartime takeover of all radio systems ended late in 1918, when the US Congress failed to pass a bill which would have extended this monopoly. The war ended in November of that year. Fordism— named after Henry Ford, is a notion of a modern economic and social system based on an industrialized and standardized form of mass production. The concept is used in various social theories and management studies about production and related socio-economic phenome- na. It is also related to the idea of mass consumption and changes of working condition of work- ers over time. Nowadays different theoretical positions assume that Fordism has either been re- placed or continues to exist in various forms. ▯ The Jazz Singer, 1927— American musical film. The first feature-length motion picture with synchronized dialogue sequences, its release heralded the commercial ascendance of the "talkies" and the decline of the silent film era. Directed byAlan Crosland and produced by Warner Bros. with its Vitaphone sound-on-disc system, the movie starsAl Jolson, who performs six songs. The film is based on The Day of Atonement, a play by Samson Raphaelson. “Americanization of the world” or the “globalization ofAmerican culture” ▯ Great Depression — The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in 1930 and lasted until the late 1930s or middle 1940s.[1] It was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th century. ▯ Protectionism— Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries. Farming and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by approximately 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternate sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as cash cropping, mining and logging suffered the most. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. In many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the end of World War II. ▯ Hawley-Smoot Tariff, 1930— The TariffAct of 1930 (codified at 19 U.S.C. ch. 4), otherwise known as the Smoot–Hawley Tariff or Hawley–Smoot Tariff, was an act sponsored by Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley and signed into law on June 17, 1930, that raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels. The dutiable tariff level (this does not include duty-free imports - see "Tariff Levels" below) un- der the act was the highest in the U.S. in 100 years, exceeded by a small margin by the Tariff of 1828.[3] Some view theAct, and the ensuing retaliatory tariffs by U.S. trading partners, as re- sponsible for reducingAmerican exports and imports by more than half.According to Ben Bernanke, "Economists still agree that Smoot-Hawley and the ensuing tariff wars were highly counterproductive and contributed to the depth and length of the global Depression."[4] Other historians such asAlfred E. Eckes, Jr., chairman of the International Trade Commission in the Reagan era, discounts this and states that Smoot-Hawley had little effect on the severity of the Great Depression. Britain-France-US TripartiteAgreement, 1936—The TripartiteAgreement was an in- ternational monetary agreement entered into by the United States, France, and Great Britain in September 1936 to stabilize their nations' currencies both at home and in the international ex- change markets. Following suspension of the gold standard by Great Britain in 1931 and the United States in 1933, a serious imbalance developed between their currencies and those of the gold bloc countries, particularly France. The devaluation of the dollar and the pound sterling raised import prices and lowered export prices in the United States and Great Britain. ▯ Roosevelt’s “Good Neighbour” policy in LatinAmerica— The Good Neighbour policy was the foreign policy of the administration of United States President Franklin Roosevelt toward the countries of LatinAmerica. The policy's main principle was that of non-intervention and non-in- terference in the domestic affairs of LatinAmerica. It also reinforced the idea that the United States would be a “good neighbour” and engage in reciprocal exchanges with LatinAmerican countries. Overall, the Roosevelt administration expected that this new policy would create new economic opportunities in the form of reciprocal trade agreements and reassert the influence of the United States in LatinAmerica; however, many LatinAmerican governments were not con- vinced. ▯ Benito Mussolini— (1883–1945), Italian statesman; prime minister1922–43; known as Il Duce (‘the leader’); full name BenitoAmilcaroAndrea Mussolini. He founded the Italian Fascist Party in 1919, annexedAbyssinia in 1936, and entered World War II on Germany's side in 1940. He was captured and executed by Italian communist partisans a few weeks before the end of the war. ▯ Adolf Hitler— German leader, born inAustria; chancellor of Germany 1933–45. He cofounded the National Socialist German Workers’(Nazi) Party in 1919 and came to prominence through his powers of oratory. He wrote Mein Kampf (1925), an exposition of his political ideas, while in prison. He established the totalitarian Third Reich in 1933. His expansionist foreign policy pre- cipitated World War II, while his fanatical anti-Semitism led to the Holocaust. ▯ Blackshirts— a member of a fascist organization, a member of a paramilitary group founded by Mussolini. ▯ The March on Rome, October 1922— an event orchestrated by Bento Mussolini out of which he would attain complete control of Italy, threatening to march 26,000 troops to force the gov- ernment to restore order. If ignored, he would seize the government by force. Corporatism/Corporate state— Corporate State: a scheme supposedly management and workers ran everything together. In fact the system was used to completely suppress the rights of the working man. ▯ Il Duce— an name for Mussolini; prime minister; known as Il Duce (‘the leader’) ▯ Weimar Republic—The Weimar Republic is the name given by historians to the federal repub- lic and semipresidential representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government. It is named after Weima,rthe city where the constitutional assem- bly took place. During this period, and well into the succeeding Nazi era, the official name of the state was German Reich (Deutsches Reich), which continued on from the pre-1918 Imperial pe- riod. ▯ The “stab in the back”— Hitler’s myth stating that the harsh conditions of the Treaty of Ver- sailles was because of the Jewish politician within the Weimar Republic. Hitler exploited these myths to gain political powers in Germany. This myth assisted Hitler in his argument to elimi- nate the Jewish population. ▯ National Socialist German Workers’Party—the Nazi Party’s precursor. Was a political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945. Party emerged from the German nationalist, racist and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post-World War I Germany.Advocacy of a form of socialism by right-wing figures and move- ments in Germany became common during and after World War I, influencing Nazism. ▯ The Führer principle—The Führer Principle came to dominate Nazi Germany afterAdolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor on January 30th 1933. The Führer Principle played its part with- in the Nazi Party in the lead up to 1933 but there were challenges to the would-be Führer from the likes of Gregor Strasser and Walter Stennes.After Hitler’s appointment as Chancellor, how- ever, a person questioned the Führer Principle at their peril.The Führer Principle was a very sim- ple concept. Rudolf Hess probably best summarised the Führer Principle when he said in a public speech: “Hitler is Germany and Germany is Hitler. Whatever he does is necessary. Whatever he does is successful. Clearly the Führer has divine blessing.” Mein Kampf, 1925-26 - Hitler’s book of political and racial struggles. Stating his opinions re- garding the government and the Jewish race. This book was very popular within Germany and attributed to Hitler’s rise to power. ▯ Locarno Treaties, 1925—were seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland, on 5–16 October 1925 and formally signed in London on 3 December, in which the First World War Western EuropeanAllied powers and the new states of Central and Eastern Europe sought to se- cure the post-war territorial settlement, and return normalizing relations with defeated Germany (which was, by this time, the Weimar Republic). Ratifications for the Locarno treaties were ex- changed in Geneva on 14 September 1926, and on the same day they became effective. The treaties were also registered in the League of Nations Treaty Series on the same day. ▯ Saar/Saarland— one of Germany's sixteen federal states .In terms of both area and population size – apart from the city-states of Berlin, Bremen and Hamburg – it is Germany's smallest fed- eral state. The wealth of its coal deposits and their large-scale industrial exploitation, coupled with its location on the border between France and Germany, have given the Saarland a unique history in modern times. Prior to its creation as the Territory of the Saar Basin by the League of Nations after World War I, the Saarland (or simply "the Saar", as is frequently referred to) did not exist as a unified entity. Until then, some parts of it had been Prussian while others belonged to Bavaria. The inhabitants voted to rejoin Germany in a plebiscite held in 1935. ▯ Anschluss, 1938—was the occupation and annexation ofAustria into Nazi Germany in 1938. This was in contrast with the Anschluss movement (Austria and Germany united as one country), which had been attempted since as early as 1918 when the Republic of German-Austria attempt- ed union with Germany but was forbidden by the Treaty of Saint Germain and Treaty of Ver- sailles peace treaties. ▯ Nuremberg Laws, 1935—were antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany introduced at the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party.After the takeover of power in 1933 by Hitler, Nazism be- came an official ideology incorporating antisemitism as a form of scientific racism. There was a rapid growth in German legislation directed at Jews and other groups, such as the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service which banned "non-Aryans" and political oppo- nents of the Nazis, from the civil-service. ▯ Lebensraum— the territory that a state or nation believes is needed for its natural development, esp. associated with Nazi Germany. ▯ Sudetenland / Munich Crisis 1938—The MunichAgreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabit- ed by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation "Sudetenland" was coined. The agreement was negotiated at a conference held in Munich, Germany, among the major powers of Europe without the presence of Czechoslovakia. Today, it is widely regarded as a failed act of appeasement toward Germany. The agreement was signed in the early hours of 30 September 1938 (but dated 29 September). The purpose of the conference was to discuss the future of the Sudetenland in the face of ethnic demands made byAdolf Hitler. The agreement was signed by Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Italy. Sudetenland was of immense strategic impor- tance to Czechoslovakia, as most of its border defenses were situated there, and many of its banks and heavy industries were located there as well. ▯ The Rome-BerlinAxis—It is a study of theAxis alliance of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany with particular emphasis on the relationship between Benito Mussolini andAdolf Hitler. ▯ TheAnti-Comintern Pact:Anti-comintern—was fascist government, we don’t like commies. Japan, german, rome,Manchuko, spain, hugary, ▯ Blitzkreig—describing a method of warfare w
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