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History Part 2.docx

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University of British Columbia
HIST 104

1December 1937The Rape of NankingConsidered the beginning of WWII because the end was in AsiaWithout Japanese invasion of China Germany may not have invaded PolandLarge scale targeting of civilian populationsUS only involved because of the JapanChina conflictUSSR against Germany JapanGermanyItaly have similar conflictsFrance invaded by Germany becomes an ally retreats into North AfricaNorth Africa later the center of conflict with US UK Germany FranceColonial world sort of fought South AmericaCivil war between NationalistsCommunists when Japan invadesoJapan attacks during civil war because its the perfect timeUK Japan conflict because of HK and SingaporePhilippines kind of under US protectorateJapan declares war on everybody cuts ties with everyoneNumber of casualties is unknown but about 4 of the world populationTechnically can be called the first Eurasian warEnd of 1936 civil war in China stops and negotiations beginoJapan is terrified because they need the fighting to continue to invadeoJapan needs China for resources and landoDesire to control their marketJapan began industrialisation in 1800s needs China to produce the agricultural productsoJapan would benefit more parasitismGreat Depression had investment collapse o1930s autarky policyBuild economy so you are not reliant on any other nationSelf sustaining economy in one nation2Becomes really strong in Japan China Italy GermanyoJapan not self sufficient in foodno oil since 1910Japanese economic advisors were conflictedRelied on US Indonesia oilArguably why army takes over Japanese govt in 1936oTwo ways to get what you wantTrade or stealTrade is difficult during war and international tensionoJapan was terrified from USSR 190405 power war between the two about ChinaUSSR took over Osaka islandsPerception that communism is the apocalypseTerrified that USSR would take over ChinaClaimed Communists were agents of USSRoIf China cuts Japanese relation Japan will die1937 July Japanese troops enter BeijingoSoldier goes missing Japan takes over north ChinaJapan was good at making myths for their benefitoArmy believes China will make peace in 3 monthsoChina eventually overwhelmed by JapanoNovember Shanghai fallsoJapan govt hopes that on Dec 1 China will ask for peaceoChiang KaiShek never surrenderedVowed to resist Japan until the endoCaptures capital and tries to force govt to respond to demandsChinese troops failoDec 1213 Japan takes over Nanking3One of the many horrific moments of waroMost documents about Rape of Nanking are foreignOnly about 4 are ChineseoIn 1937 foreigners11 American6 GermanExcessoForeigners form International Committee of the Nanjing Safety ZoneCalled it the refugee zoneJapanese never agreed to it more or less ignored itPOW were not treated according to 1933 Geneva ConventionAll males were executed80 of women were rapedTried to set up a list of refugee campsrdThey have 3 country statusoGermans SiemensJohn Rabe stays Feels that if he pulls out his employees are deadMember of Nazi partyBecomes head of the committeeoGermanyJapan have a loose allianceBoth effectiveineffectiveoEffective that he gets all employees safe and challenges the JapaneseoVisible presence protects them alloIneffective because he writes to HitlerLetters never get there
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