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KIN 161
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Lecture 6 Youth Leisure Sport and CultureOrigins of Organized Youth Sports5Sport organizations arent sensitive to family responsibilities among Facilitate close scores and realistic challengescoachesadminthEmerged in the 20 centuryFacilitate friendship formation and maintenance6Women experience more sexual harassment and perceive they are Coaching Education Programsjudged by more demanding standards than those judges by menFirst programs focused on masculinizing boys Are USEFUL when the teach coaches toCoaching Association of CanadaGirls interests were ignoredDeal with children safely and responsiblySponsors a national team coaching apprenticeship program for womenSocial Changes Related to the Growth of Organized Youth SportOrganize practices and teach skills18 omen in 14 sports for 3 year national team experienceIncrease in families with both parents working outside of homeAre PROBLEMATIC whenCanada games coaching apprenticeshipNew definitions of what a good parent isThey foster a technoscience approach to controlling childrenStrategies to Promote Gender EquityBelief that informal activitieskids getting into troubleCreating coaches who are sport efficiency experts often doesnt contribute to 1Confront discrimination and be an advocate for women overall childhood developmentcoachesadminLecture 7 and 8 Gender and SportsBelief that the world is dangerous for childrenParticipation and Equity Issues2Be an advocate of fair and open employment practicesProblems in AdultOrganized Youth Sports Michael Smith 1975Participation by girlswomen has increased dramatically because of Four assumptions dominated childrens organized programs in early 1970s 3Keep data on gender equityhowever many persist todayNew opportunities1Children play sports to entertain adults4Learn and educate others about the history of discrimination in Government equal rights legislationsports and how to identify discrimination2Sports must be organizedcontrolled by adults if they are to be real5Inform media of unfair and discriminatory policiesGlobal womens rights movement3Children are miniature adults6Package womens sports as revenue producersHealth and fitness movement4The real value of sport lies in learning to be a winnerthere are winners and 7Recruit women athletes into coachingloser in life and sports help your children end up in the right groupIncreased media coverage of womens sportsChildren in HighPerformance SportsIntroduction of the early identification system developed in Eastern Europe8Use womens hiring networksCanadian Gender Equity Initiatives that Affect SportEarly exposure of children to a wide range of physical activities1970 Report of the Royal Commission on Status if Women9Create a supportive climate for women in your organizationCAAWS Canadian Association for the Advancement of Women and Sport and Physical ActivityBroad base of participants in sport and physical activities1982 Constitution Act Schedule 8 Canadian Charter of RightsFreedomGirls and Women As Agents of ChangeSport participation can empower women butEarly identification of athletic talent1985 Canadian Human Rights ActProvincial Human Rights LegislationThis doesnt occur automaticallyIntensive specialized training for those identified1986 Sport Canadas Policy on Women in Sportin most parts of world Canada the first 2 steps are excludedPersonal empowerment is no necessarily associated with an awareness of the Reasons for CautionWhen Predicting Future ParticipationWidespread concerns about eating disorders and injuries have had some need for gender transformation in society as a wholeeffect on gymnastics where a range of body types is now apparent in 1Budget cutbacks and the privatization of sport programsinternational competitionsElite athletes seldom are active agents of change when it comes to gender Different Youth Sport Experiences2Resistance to government regulationsideologyWhy Elite Athletes Seldom Challenge Traditional Gender IdeologyInformal playercontrolled sports positivechildren want action personal 3Backlash among recent changes that threaten the dominant gender involvement exciting experience friends Coakley 20091Female athletes have much to lose if they are perceived as radical ideologyfeminist or lesbianInformal player controlled negativenot always safe sometimes bullies control 4Underrepresentation of women in decisionmaking positions of game and children are excluded less skill development2Corporationdriven celebrityfeminism focuses on individualism sportsand consumption not everyday struggles related to genderFormal adultcontrolled sports5Continues emphasis on cosmetic fitness Images and messages 3Empowerment discourses in sports often are tied to fitness and When Are Children Ready to Play Organized Competitive Sportsin popular culture serve to perpetuate the importance of cosmetic fitnessBarbieheterosexual attractivenessChild trafficking in sports is recent concern about childrens involvement in high 6Trivialization of womens sports4Women athletes have little controlpolitical voice in sportssocietyperformance sport programsBoys and Men As Agents of ChangeGender equity also is a mens issue7Homophobia and the threat of being labeled lesbianBefore 12 children do no have ability to fully understand competitive team Disability and GendersportsIt creates options for mean to play sports that arent based only on a power and Women with disabilities are disadvantaged in a culture where femininity and performance modelChildren must know how to cooperate before they can competeheterosexual attractiveness are connectedIt emphasizes relationships based on cooperation rather than conquest and Team sports require ability to see world through the eyes of othersMen with disabilities are disadvantaged in a culture where manhood is dominationDynamics of Family Relationships in Youth Sportsconstructed though narratives of conquest and dominationIt provides opportunities for boysmen to learn how to maintain emotionally Sports have potential to bring families togetherSome people with disabilities fear of being identified as subnormal and satisfying relationshipsChanges in Gender IdeologyA prerequisite for Gender Equitytherefore avoid playing sportsGender ideology is crucial becauseBeing together doesnt mean that close communication occursGender Equity IssuesAlways exist when sport cultures are Maledominated Maleidentified or MalecenteredGender and Fairness Issues in SportsGender is a fundamental organizing principle for social lifeChildren may feel pressure from parentsInequities in participation opportunitiesGender ideology influences how we think of ourselves define and relate to Parent labor in youth sportsgendered ideas about workfamilyothers present ourselves to others think aboutplan for futureMajor Trend in Youth Sport TodayEstablishing legal definitions of equity is a challengeWe are in a coupled society or binary classification 2 very distinct opposites Male and Female what we consider to be masculine and Organized programs have become increasingly privatizedfeminine Classifications get married have childrenSupport for athletes covers many issuesGender ideology in Canada is based on a twocategory classification system thatOrganized programs increasingly emphasize the performance ethicAssumes 2 mutually exclusive categories heterosexual male and femaleWomen are underrepresented in coachingadmin jobs in sportsAccess to Informal and Alternative SportsIncreased parental involvement and concernGender inequities also exist in playercontrolled sportsEncourages these to be perceived in terms of difference as oppositesIncreased culture of caution surrounding you sportsGirlswomen may face greater access challenges then boysmenLeaves no space for those who dont fit into either categoryIncreased participation in alternative sportsBoysmen often control access to these sports and access on their teamInvolved inequities when it comes to power and access to powerDifferent ExperiencesThe 2Category Gender Classification ModelIn Canadian Culture Formal Sports EmphasizeInformal Sports EmphasizeEquity legislation doesnt apply to these sportsFormal rulesActionSupport for Female AthletesPersonal InvolvementSet positionsHistorically there have been serious inequities in the following areasGuidance by adultsChallenging experiences Access toquality of facilities availability of scholarships program operatingStatus and outcomes Reaffirming friendshipsexpenses recruiting budgets scheduling of gamespractice times travel expenses Different Outcomesnumber of coaches salaries for staffadmin medical servicesfacilities and publicity Formal Sports EmphasizeInformal Sports Emphasizefor players teams and events Relationships with authority Decisionmaking skillsEquality vs EquityLearning rulesstrategiesCooperationCanadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Rulegoverned teamworkImprovisationProblem SolvingEquality Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to Recommendations for Changing Informal and Alternative Sportsequal protection and equal benefit of the law without discriminationEquity The above doesnt preclude any law program or activity that has as its Make play spaces more safeaccessible to childrenobject the amelioration of conditions of disadvantages individualsgroupsThis means it can be legal to create inequalities to achieve equityIn 2005 there were 25X more men than women coaching CIS womens sportsProvide indirect guidance without being controllingLimits what is normalOut of bounds is created by societyCoaching and AdminReasons for UnderrepresentationTreat these sports as worthwhile sites for facing challenges and developing 1Women have fewer connections and networks in elite programscompetenceMen dont have much room to step out of bounds but have higher Recommendations for Changing Organized Sports2Subjective evaluative criteria used by search committeespowerprivilegeinfluenceIncrease action3Support systems and professional development for women is scarce4Women dont see spaces for them in corporate cultures of sport Increase personal involvement10 of people fit into the out of bounds category
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