Ch-2. 19 Blood.doc

5 Pages
123 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Kinesiology
Course
KIN 190
Professor
Blythe Nielson
Semester
Fall

Description
Learning expectations for BIOL 131. Chapters 19, Blood You should be able to: • Describe the composition of blood and the functions of each component. - 55% plasma: liquid, 91% water, ions, nutrients, regulatory substances, gases, proteins o Albumins: transport fatty acids, buffer, viscosity, osmotic pressure, thyroid hormones o Globulins: transports lipids, carbs, hormones, ions, antibodies o Fibrinogen: blood clotting o Ions: acid-base balance, osmosis o Nutrients: glucose, amino acids, cholesterol, vitamins o Waste products: urea, uric acid, creatinine, ammonia salts (breakdown products of protein metabolism), bilirubin (breakdown of RBC), lactic acid (end product of anaerobic respiration) o Gases: oxygen, carbon dioxide, inert nitrogen o Reg. substances: hormones, enzymes - RBC (erythrocytes): anucleate, contain hemoglobin, transports oxygen/carbon dioxide - WBC (leukocytes): Granulocytes: cytoplasm has large granules, multi-lobed nutrients > neutrophils, basophils, eosiniphils…. Agranulocytes: cytoplasm has small granules, nuclei are not lobed (lymphocytes/monocytes) - Platelets: (thrombocytes): cell fragment, form platelet plugs, release chemicals ready for blood clotting • List the main functions of blood. - Transport (gas, nutrients, waste products, processed/regulatory molecules) - Regulation of pH/osmosis (normal pH 7.35-7.45) - Maintenance of body temp - Protection against foreign substances immune cells/antibodies) - Clot formation • Give the roles of the major blood proteins: albumins contribute to viscosity and act as carriers for things such as fatty acids, and hormones; globulins can transport things such as lipids and hormones and some specialized globulins include antibodies and complement, fibrinogen is converted to fibrin during clot formation. - Albumins: transport fatty acids, buffer, viscosity, osmotic pressure, thyroid hormones - Globulins: transports lipids, carbs, hormones, ions, antibodies - Fibrinogen: blood clotting • List the formed elements and state the function of each. - RBC (erythrocytes): anucleate, contain hemoglobin, transports oxygen/carbon dioxide - WBC (leukocytes): Granulocytes: cytoplasm has large granules, multi-lobed nutrients > neutrophils, basophils, eosiniphils…. Agranulocytes: cytoplasm has small granules, nuclei are not lobed (lymphocytes/monocytes) - Platelets: (thrombocytes): cell fragment, form platelet plugs, release chemicals ready for blood clotting • Discuss hematopoiesis. - Blood cell production: • Describe the structure and function of red blood cells in detail (be sure to know the role of bicarbonate ion and carbonic anhydrase). - 1/3 hemoglobin, 2/3 lipids, ATP, carbonic anhydrase - Oxygen: 98.5% attached to hemoglobin, 1.5% dissolved in plasma - Carbon dioxide from tissue to lungs: 7% dissolved in plasma, 23% combination w/ hemoglobin, 70% transported as bicarbonate ions produced as a result of combination of water and carbon dioxide due du enzyme carbonic anhydrase found within RBC’s. - Carbonic anhydrase: gets rid of acidic input - Bicarbonate ion: 70% of carbon dioxide transported from tissue to lungs in this form* • Describe the structure of hemoglobin. - 4 globin molecules, 4 heme groups (each with 1 iron atom, transport oxygen) - 4 big pieces are globins, small are hemes (each hemoglobin molecule combines 4 oxygen, not all filled unless desperate) - Fetal has greater oxygen attraction than adult, production in fetus stops after birth. • Discuss erythropoiesis and state the role of EPO. - Erythropoietin: hormone that stimulates RBC production, produced by kidneys in response to low oxygen levels in blood, then RBC produced in red bone marrow, returning oxygen levels to normal (homeostatic response) - Iron required, Vitamin C/stomach acid increase absorption from intestine, calcium, phyates/tannins inhibit absorption in intestine - Cooking grains reduces phyate inhibition >cooked foods more nutritious than raw* • Describe the paths of red blood cells: they circulate, then when they are worn out much of the cell components are recycled and the heme groups are broken down into iron and bilirubin. The iron is processed by the spleen and liver – most is recycled. The bilirubin is processed by the liver and secreted into the gall bladder as a component of bile. In the small intestines some of this is absorbed and some is excreted in feces. Some is absorbed and some of that is excreted by the kidneys. Urine bilirubin tests are standard. - Iron can also go to red bone marrow where it is used for production of new hemoglobin** • List the white blood cells and their functions. - Protect body against microorganisms/remove dead cells and debris - Neutrophils: phagocytize bacteria, antigen-antibody complexes, other foreign matter (phagocytic family), secrete lysosome, 60-70% of WBC - Eosinophils: enter tissue during inflammatory response, prevalent in
More Less

Related notes for KIN 190

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit