Bio Chapter 1-4-2.docx

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KIN 190
Blythe Nielson

Learning expectations for BIOL 131. Chapters 1-4 You should be able to: Review portion - you should have come into this class already knowing these:  Define homeostasis - existence/maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body ***  Explain how negative feedback works and give examples. - Negative feedback: when a deviation occurs, brings body back to normal state. Ex > BP too high, control centre in brain detects, dilates bvs/lower heart rate, BP lowers back to normal.  Define and use the terminology for body plans and planes in the lab. - Superior/inferior (longitudinal), anterior/posterior (frontal), proximal/distal, medial/lateral (sagittal), superficial/deep  Define the body cavities (we will cover these again later).  Define serous membrane and state where it’s found. - Lining filled with serous fluid, lines organs of trunk cavities, visceral serosa and parietal membranes with a serous fluid in between, contains proteins and glucose.  Briefly describe the main imaging processes used in medicine. - X ray – produces shadowy negatives of bone structure - Ultasound – uses sound waves to bounce off structure in body - FMRI – uses dye to detect areas of high blood flow in brain - CT – computer analyzed made of radiographs showing slices of body - DSR – 3D CT scan, showing more body slices - DSA – compares radiographs without dye - PET – calculates metabolic activity of cells - MRI – magnetism/radio waves to look for alignment of protons in soft tissue  Recognize the letter symbols for the elements important to life.  State what an isotope is and how some are used in medicine. - Forms an element with different # of neutrons (H has 3 isotopes) - Sterilizes materials for surgery, kills cancer cells (radioisotopes emit radioactive energy), tracks hormone uptakes in the body.  Describe different types of bonds and how they affect the chemistry of life. - Single covalent: 2 atoms share I pair of electrons - Double covalent: 2 atoms share 4 electrons - Ionic bonding: 2 atoms share ions by exchange - Covalet Bonding: 2 atoms share electron - Polar covalent bonding: atoms not shared equally, nucleus from one attracts more electrons than other - Nonpolar: electrons shared equally, both nuclei attract equal electrons  Understand how ions are formed and why they are chemically different than non-ionic dissolved chemicals. - Formed when atom loses/gains electrons to become CHARGED - Dissociate in water >cations attract to negative end of h20, anions attract to positive ends of h20, bonds break and surround with water (free ions)  Define electrolyte. - Dissociated ions in water that conduct an electric current  Understand the terminology of metabolism enough to explain which kinds of reactions are responsible for building tissues or breaking down food. - Metabolism – combination of all possible catabolic/anabolic reactions in the body - Decomposition > breaks down food, dissacharides to glucose - Hydrolysis breaks down food w/ use of water - Catabolic: digestion of food, breakdown of fat stores, breakdown of foreign matter in body - Synthesis: combine 2+ reactants to form new larger product >comb 2 amino acids to form dipeptide+water (anabolism = creating/repairing body)  Define chemical equilibrium – we will cover this more in the blood section. - Rate of product formation is equal to rate of reverse reaction  Explain how, when a bond is broken, some of the energy is heat energy. This is used by humans to maintain temperature homeostasis.  Define acid, base, salt and buffer. Understand the roles of ions in pH. - Acid: proton donor. Molecule or compound releasing H+ proton (0-6) - Base: proton acceptor. Releases OH- when dissociated (8-14) - 7: neutral - Salt: compound consisting of cation other than H and anion other than OH - Buffer: chemicals that resist changes in solution pH when acids/bases added. Maintain pH homeostasis  Know the normal pH of blood. - 7.35-7.45  Be able to distinguish between carbohydrates, proteins, fats and nucleic acids with respect to composition, use and location in cells, role as nutrient. - Carbs (Dissacharides): 2 simple sugars bound by dehydration (C, H, O) sucrose, lactose, maltose - Carbs (polysaccharides): chains of monosaccharides, glycogen (animals), cellulose (plants) - Lipids – broken down by hydrolysis: triglycerides composed of glycerol+fatty acids (C, H, O) - Saturated: single bonds in carbon chain, more rigid, saturated with H - Unsaturated: 1+ double bonds in carbon chain more flexible - Trans: artificially unsaturated fat. Rare double bond in chain - Phospholipids: polar at one end, nonpolar at other (structural component of cell membranes) - Proteins: amino acids = building blocks, made of C H O N, peptide bonds: covalent bonds forme
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