Learning expectations for BIOL 131. Chapters 1-4
You should be able to:
Review portion - you should have come into this class already knowing these:
- existence/maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the
Explain how negative feedback works and give examples.
- Negative feedback: when a deviation occurs, brings body back to normal
state. Ex > BP too high, control centre in brain detects, dilates bvs/lower
heart rate, BP lowers back to normal.
Define and use the terminology for body plans and planes in the lab.
- Superior/inferior (longitudinal), anterior/posterior (frontal),
proximal/distal, medial/lateral (sagittal), superficial/deep
Define the body cavities (we will cover these again later).
Define serous membrane and state where it’s found.
- Lining filled with serous fluid, lines organs of trunk cavities, visceral
serosa and parietal membranes with a serous fluid in between, contains
proteins and glucose.
Briefly describe the main imaging processes used in medicine.
- X ray – produces shadowy negatives of bone structure
- Ultasound – uses sound waves to bounce off structure in body
- FMRI – uses dye to detect areas of high blood flow in brain
- CT – computer analyzed made of radiographs showing slices of body
- DSR – 3D CT scan, showing more body slices
- DSA – compares radiographs without dye
- PET – calculates metabolic activity of cells
- MRI – magnetism/radio waves to look for alignment of protons in soft
Recognize the letter symbols for the elements important to life.
State what an isotope is and how some are used in medicine.
- Forms an element with different # of neutrons (H has 3 isotopes)
- Sterilizes materials for surgery, kills cancer cells (radioisotopes emit
radioactive energy), tracks hormone uptakes in the body.
Describe different types of bonds and how they affect the chemistry of life.
- Single covalent: 2 atoms share I pair of electrons
- Double covalent: 2 atoms share 4 electrons
- Ionic bonding: 2 atoms share ions by exchange
- Covalet Bonding: 2 atoms share electron
- Polar covalent bonding: atoms not shared equally, nucleus from one
attracts more electrons than other
- Nonpolar: electrons shared equally, both nuclei attract equal electrons Understand how ions are formed and why they are chemically different than
non-ionic dissolved chemicals.
- Formed when atom loses/gains electrons to become CHARGED
- Dissociate in water >cations attract to negative end of h20, anions attract
to positive ends of h20, bonds break and surround with water (free ions)
- Dissociated ions in water that conduct an electric current
Understand the terminology of metabolism enough to explain which kinds of
reactions are responsible for building tissues or breaking down food.
- Metabolism – combination of all possible catabolic/anabolic reactions in
- Decomposition > breaks down food, dissacharides to glucose
- Hydrolysis breaks down food w/ use of water
- Catabolic: digestion of food, breakdown of fat stores, breakdown of
foreign matter in body
- Synthesis: combine 2+ reactants to form new larger product >comb 2
amino acids to form dipeptide+water (anabolism = creating/repairing
Define chemical equilibrium – we will cover this more in the blood section.
- Rate of product formation is equal to rate of reverse reaction
Explain how, when a bond is broken, some of the energy is heat energy. This
is used by humans to maintain temperature homeostasis.
Define acid, base, salt and buffer. Understand the roles of ions in pH.
- Acid: proton donor. Molecule or compound releasing H+ proton (0-6)
- Base: proton acceptor. Releases OH- when dissociated (8-14)
- 7: neutral
- Salt: compound consisting of cation other than H and anion other than OH
- Buffer: chemicals that resist changes in solution pH when acids/bases
added. Maintain pH homeostasis
Know the normal pH of blood.
Be able to distinguish between carbohydrates, proteins, fats and nucleic acids
with respect to composition, use and location in cells, role as nutrient.
- Carbs (Dissacharides): 2 simple sugars bound by dehydration (C, H, O)
sucrose, lactose, maltose
- Carbs (polysaccharides): chains of monosaccharides, glycogen (animals),
- Lipids – broken down by hydrolysis: triglycerides composed of
glycerol+fatty acids (C, H, O)
- Saturated: single bonds in carbon chain, more rigid, saturated with H
- Unsaturated: 1+ double bonds in carbon chain more flexible
- Trans: artificially unsaturated fat. Rare double bond in chain - Phospholipids: polar at one end, nonpolar at other (structural component
of cell membranes)
- Proteins: amino acids = building blocks, made of C H O N, peptide bonds:
covalent bonds forme