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KIN 231
Peter Crocker

Chapter 6: Emotion, Stress and Coping Moods - Diffuse, global, subjective feeling states - Last longer than emotions - Not directed toward a particular person or thing o Cheerful, glum - Narrow your memories o Bad moods typically cause increased access to negative memories o Good moods typically access positive memories Emotion - A omplex psychophysiological state of limited duration that is associated with a distinctive subjective feeling and distinctive facial or body expression o Happiness, sadness, disgust, anger, anxiety, fear - Characteristics of emotions: o Quick onset, short duration, common cognitive appraisal, distinctive physiological patterns, distinctive subjective feeling o Each person’s expression of an emotion is unique o Caused by neurotransmitters - Specific emotions: o 1. Anger 2. Anxiety 3. Fright 4. Guilt 5. Shame o 6. Sadness 7. Envy 8. Jealousy 9. Happiness 10. Pride o 11. Relief 12. Hope 13. Love 14. Gratitude 15. Compassion - Sport and exercise research mainly focuses on anxiety - Basic emotions (anger, sadness) and sSelf-conscious emotions (Pride, guilt, shame) are important as well Self-Conscious Emotion o Identity relevance  Is the situation important to sense of self? o Identity congruence  Positive or negative o Reasons (attributions) for outcome  Stable/unstable - What will happen in time?  Internal/external – Do you have control? o Shame  Stable/internal attributions (ie. Poor performance based on ability)  Often want to hide (socially, physically)  Linked to fear of social rejection and exclusion  Associated with health/behavior risk  Trigger: appearance, physical incompetence, negative judgements  Cognitions: mental avoidance, negative thoughts, coping  Behaviours: Avoidance, attempts to change, seek advice/support o Guilt  Unstable/internal attributions (Routed from effort)  Linked to behavior rather than self  Associated with reparative behavior  Lots of exercise is based around guilt  Triggers: eating, drinking, athletics, appearance  Cognitions: negative thoughts, regret, lack of control  Behaviours: avoidance, attempts to change, seek support o Pride  Hubristic Pride  Tied to arrogance and taunting (I’m the best)  Being superior  Stable/internal attributions  Sometimes associated with negative social behaviours  Often seen in professional sport (Ego orientated)  Authentic Pride  Tied to being successful through effort  Unstable/internal attributions  More likely to be associated with positive social behavior  Mastery orientated Stress - A relationship between the person and environment that is appraised as taxing or exceeding that is appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person and endangering his/her well-being - Response: physiological, cognitive, affective and behavioural reactions - Process: links situational demands to athlete’s reactions to outcomes - Stressors: Events, forces, or situations with the potential to be interpreted as stressful - Appraisal: cognitive appraisal is a key concept in stress o Interprets the situation o Primary Appraisal:  What is at stake?  Is what is happening relevant to goals?  Is their potential for benefit or harm? o Secondary Appraisal  What can be done in the situation  Ability to manage, prevent, or adapt to the encounter  Depends on resources, level of perceived control and expectations o Harm/Loss: appraisal of psychological damage and irrevocable loss that has occurred o Threat: anticipating harm that may occur o Challenge: benefits of succeeding - Not all stress is negative (Eustress or Distress) - Sources of stress: 1. Psychological Concerns 2. Physical Concerns 3. Social Concerns 4. Environmental Concerns 5. Career and Life Direction Concerns - Subtypes of Stressors: o Chronic Stress o Acute Stress o Expected Stressor o Unexpected Stressor o Competitive Stressor: prior to, during, or after competition  Varsity athletes play to win o Non-Competitive Stressor: sport-related but not directly part of competition  Varsity athletes needed to have certain marks in order to play - Stress in Exercise: o The stress process is the same in exercise as in sport o The process is driven by situational demands, appraisal, and coping o Situational demands will often be different, as will the meaning of transaction  Linked to motivation to exercise - Model of Stress o Cognitive-Motivational-Relational Theory  Stress is a product of the dynamic and transactional relationship between the person and the environment Person  Environment  Stress is not a stimulus nor a response o Cognitive Appraisal and Coping  Processes that mediate the experience of stress  Coping is problem and emotion focused  Constantly changing cognitive and behavioural efforts used to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person  Cognitive Appraisal is primary and secondary  An evaluation about whether the encounter has significance for the person’s well0being (produces emotion)  One’s unique perception of a situation, not reality Person-Environment Transaction  Cognitive Appraisal  Coping  Stress/Emotion Outcome Coping - Micro vs. Macro Analysis o Micro-analystic: Specific coping strategies  Problem-solving  Wishful thinking  Increasing effort  Venting  Confronting  Planning  Seeking social support  Humour  Self-blame  Denial  Distancing o Macro-level: Goals or functions of strategies  Problem-Focusing Coping  Efforts directed at changing the transaction  Emotion-Focused Coping  Efforts directed at changing the emotional response without changing the transaction  Change the way the situation is interpreted/change how you feel about the problem  Avoidance Coping  Disengaging mentally or physically - Coping Outcome  The results (good or bad) of coping efforts  Not the same as coping process - Coping Effectiveness o Goodness-of-Fit Model of Coping  Effectiveness depends on two fits:  1) Fit between reality and appraisal o Reflect what is actually going on in situation and how that situation is appraised  2) Fit between appraisal and coping o Reflects the match between one’s perceived controllability of situation and the actual effort of control - Coping Predictors: o Males and females cope differently in sport  Females = more social support, help-seeking, increased effort o Role Constraint Theory: Stress differences result from different roles men and women play in society o Gender Socialization Hypothesis: Males and females lean different coping strategies for managing same types of situations (ie. Passive vs. Active Aggression) o Personal Resources: psychological skills are important, ineffective coping lacks - Self-Presentation and Exercise o Self Presentation (SP)  Process by which individuals attempt to control the impressions others from of them  People concerned about others’ impressions of them  Impression motivation: motivation to control how one is perceived in a particular social situation; related to the importance of creating a desired impression in a particular context  Self-presentational efficacy: the level of certainty about one’s capabilities to make a favourable impression  Influenced by motivational climate  Social anxiety = most common anxiety - Self-Presentation and Body Anxiety (Coping) o Study (Sabiston and Colleagues – 2007) on adolescent females  Identified 107 unique coping strategies  10 sub-themes  behavioural avoidance - appearance management  social support - reappraisal  comparison to others - substance use  cognitive avoidance - diet  physical activity - cognitive deflection  seek sexual attention - Coping Interventions o Stress Inoculation Training:  Learn to develop and use a range of coping skills  To practice, start with low-stress situations, gradually building higher o Stress Management Training  Athletes develop an “integrated coping response”  Used in a variety of stressful situations  Muscular relaxation, self-talk  Induced affect – athletes “turn off” stress using this o COPE Training  Learn coping strategies in a planned sequence  Recognize that different strategies are going to be more or less effective depending on the specific situation  Emphasis on acute stress Emotions, Appraisal, and Coping - Specific emotions are generated by specific appraisals o Fear  Primary: goal importance, threat to physical self, goal incongruence  Secondary: lack of resources, plan – fight or flight - Coping with emotions o Must not only manage demands but also the cognitive and physiological aspects of emotions o Coping can result in positive or negative outcomes o Anger  Facial expression, high arousal, action impulse (to strike out)  Chapter 7: Aggression and Moral Behaviour in Sport Aggression - “any overt verbal or physical act that is intended to psychologically and physically injure another organism - Key points: o Behaviour o Intent to harm or injure (physical or psychological) o Directed toward another living organism o Verbal or physical - Violent Behaviour: Extreme physical aggression with no direct relationship to the competitive goals of sport - Assertive Behaviour: o Forceful, vigorous, and legitimate actions with no intent to injure 1. No intent to harm 2. Legitimate force 3. Unusual effort & energy expenditure - Hostile Aggression o The focus is harm causes shift assertive  hostile 1. Intent to harm 2. Goal to harm 3. Anger - Instrumental Aggression o Stepping outside the rules, focus is still on winning 1. Intent to harm 2. Goal to win 3. No anger - Modes of Aggression: 1. Physical 2. Verbal 3. Relational - Theories/Models of Causes: 1. Instinct/Psychodynamics Theory  Innate instinct to be aggressive  Common to all people  Builds up, must inevitably be released  Catharsis: the release of aggression in a socially acceptable way  Sport is a method of catharsis 2. Physiological  Aggression is physiological in nature  Two supportive mechanisms:  Brain Pathology: aggressive behavior is a characteristic of people with brain tumors  Blood Chemistry: Aggression linked to the hormone testosterone o More prominent in animals  Steroid use is an exception 3. Frustration-Aggression Theory  Two key proposals: o Frustration always leads to some form of aggression  Blown off via catharsis o Aggression always is the result of frustration Frustration  Aggressive Drive  Aggressive Behaviour 4. Revised Frustration-Aggression Theory 5. Social Learning Theory  Aggressive behaviour is learned via:  Modeling/observational learning: watching others  Reinforcement: learn through being rewarded/punished  Social Comparison: exhibiting in order to fit in  Concern with “role models” of aggression and media portrayal  Rewards given to aggressive acts 6. Moral Disegagement  Extension of Social Learning Theory to address moral behavior  Attempt to expain how people who engage in deviant behavior justify their actions (like aggression)  Individuals refrain from behaviours that violate their moral standards  Eight mechanisms: 1. Moral justification; fight to protect a teammate 2. Euphemistic labeling: changing wording to make less major 3. Advantageous comparison: comparing behavior to an extreme 4. Displacement of responsibility: shifting blame 5. Diffusion of responsibility: displace blame to a group 6. Distortion of consequences: minimize the consequences 7. Dehumanization: see someone as having different qualities 8. Attribution of blame: see yourself as a victim, not an aggressor - Personal factors that influence Aggression: 1. Retaliation Motives  Attempt to harm opponents based on opponent’s aggression  Most aggression is preceded by opposition’s aggressive acts 2. Annoyances  Aggress because
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