KIN 231 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Motivation, Team Unity, Role Conflict

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27 Jan 2013
Chapter 6: Emotion, Stress and Coping
- Diffuse, global, subjective feeling states
- Last longer than emotions
- Not directed toward a particular person or thing
o Cheerful, glum
- Narrow your memories
o Bad moods typically cause increased access to negative memories
o Good moods typically access positive memories
- A omplex psychophysiological state of limited duration that is associated with a
distinctive subjective feeling and distinctive facial or body expression
o Happiness, sadness, disgust, anger, anxiety, fear
- Characteristics of emotions:
o Quick onset, short duration, common cognitive appraisal, distinctive physiological
patterns, distinctive subjective feeling
o Each person’s expression of an emotion is unique
o Caused by neurotransmitters
- Specific emotions:
o 1. Anger 2. Anxiety 3. Fright 4. Guilt 5. Shame
o 6. Sadness 7. Envy 8. Jealousy 9. Happiness 10. Pride
o 11. Relief 12. Hope 13. Love 14. Gratitude 15. Compassion
- Sport and exercise research mainly focuses on anxiety
- Basic emotions (anger, sadness) and sSelf-conscious emotions (Pride, guilt, shame) are
important as well
Self-Conscious Emotion
o Identity relevance
Is the situation important to sense of self?
o Identity congruence
Positive or negative
o Reasons (attributions) for outcome
Stable/unstable - What will happen in time?
Internal/external Do you have control?
o Shame
Stable/internal attributions (ie. Poor performance based on ability)
Often want to hide (socially, physically)
Linked to fear of social rejection and exclusion
Associated with health/behavior risk
Trigger: appearance, physical incompetence, negative judgements
Cognitions: mental avoidance, negative thoughts, coping
Behaviours: Avoidance, attempts to change, seek advice/support
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o Guilt
Unstable/internal attributions (Routed from effort)
Linked to behavior rather than self
Associated with reparative behavior
Lots of exercise is based around guilt
Triggers: eating, drinking, athletics, appearance
Cognitions: negative thoughts, regret, lack of control
Behaviours: avoidance, attempts to change, seek support
o Pride
Hubristic Pride
Tied to arrogance and taunting (I’m the best)
Being superior
Stable/internal attributions
Sometimes associated with negative social behaviours
Often seen in professional sport (Ego orientated)
Authentic Pride
Tied to being successful through effort
Unstable/internal attributions
More likely to be associated with positive social behavior
Mastery orientated
- A relationship between the person and environment that is appraised as taxing or
exceeding that is appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person and
endangering his/her well-being
- Response: physiological, cognitive, affective and behavioural reactions
- Process: links situational demands to athlete’s reactions to outcomes
- Stressors: Events, forces, or situations with the potential to be interpreted as stressful
- Appraisal: cognitive appraisal is a key concept in stress
o Interprets the situation
o Primary Appraisal:
What is at stake?
Is what is happening relevant to goals?
Is their potential for benefit or harm?
o Secondary Appraisal
What can be done in the situation
Ability to manage, prevent, or adapt to the encounter
Depends on resources, level of perceived control and expectations
o Harm/Loss: appraisal of psychological damage and irrevocable loss that has
o Threat: anticipating harm that may occur
o Challenge: benefits of succeeding
- Not all stress is negative (Eustress or Distress)
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- Sources of stress:
1. Psychological Concerns
2. Physical Concerns
3. Social Concerns
4. Environmental Concerns
5. Career and Life Direction Concerns
- Subtypes of Stressors:
o Chronic Stress
o Acute Stress
o Expected Stressor
o Unexpected Stressor
o Competitive Stressor: prior to, during, or after competition
Varsity athletes play to win
o Non-Competitive Stressor: sport-related but not directly part of competition
Varsity athletes needed to have certain marks in order to play
- Stress in Exercise:
o The stress process is the same in exercise as in sport
o The process is driven by situational demands, appraisal, and coping
o Situational demands will often be different, as will the meaning of transaction
Linked to motivation to exercise
- Model of Stress
o Cognitive-Motivational-Relational Theory
Stress is a product of the dynamic and transactional relationship between
the person and the environment
Person  Environment
Stress is not a stimulus nor a response
o Cognitive Appraisal and Coping
Processes that mediate the experience of stress
Coping is problem and emotion focused
Constantly changing cognitive and behavioural efforts used to
manage specific external and/or internal demands that are
appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person
Cognitive Appraisal is primary and secondary
An evaluation about whether the encounter has significance for the
person’s well0being (produces emotion)
One’s unique perception of a situation, not reality
Person-Environment Transaction Cognitive Appraisal  Coping Stress/Emotion Outcome
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