Ling101 Fall 2013

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LING 101
Strang Burton

LING 101 FINAL EXAM OUTLINE - FALL2013 TUESDAY DECEMBER 10th -- 7:00 PM @ SRC C ● Below is a rough outline of the final exam, by topic. ● Each question is worth 1 point, unless otherwise indicated ● Exact point distribution and order may change during editing, but this is a good rough guide to what’s on the exam 1. Language vs. Family vs. Dialect (concepts) Family - group of languages sharing single common ancestor Dialects - varieties of a language that are mutually intelligible Two languages are separate languages when they are mutually unintelligible. 2. Prescriptive vs. Descriptive grammar (concepts) Prescriptive statements make judgements based on no or weak evidence Descriptive statements describe without judgement, examines change of rules 3. Goals and principles of the IPA ● unambiguous sound-system to describe sounds ● standards for all sounds 4. Language families for English, German, Halq'emeylem, Medumba, Chipewyan,Greek, and Arabic Indo-European - English, German, Greek Salishan - Halq’emeylem Niger-Congo - Medumba Na-Dene - Chipewyan Afro-Asiatic - Arabic 5. Historical changes that differentiated Germanic branch from older IE Grimm’s Law - historical changes kw > hw t > θ p > f 6. Historical changes that differentiated modern English from modern German . ● English lost the velar fricative /x/ German kept it (licht, nacht, sicht) ● English phonotactics did not allow word initial /kn/ (knee, knight, knot) ● German does (knie, knecht, knoten) 7. (1pts.) Distinctive features (Asound feature is distinctive for a language if switching that feature creates distinct sounds) of the English, German, Halq'emeylem, and Hawaiian C systems English - insert glottal stop in front of syllable that needs an onset - not underlying in the English lexicon, inserted when needed, spontaneous voicing (certain sounds are almost always voiced) for nasals, liquids German θ and ð became d, has front rounded vowels Halq’emeylem - there are distinctions based on glottal stops, but no distinctions in Halq'emeylem based on glottals at the starts of a word. Distinctive lip rounding for velar consonants. Voice is not distinctive. Hawaiian - No Voice, no Fricatives, not very many places, vowel length is distinctive, glottal stop distinctive word-internally but not required for vowel onsets, Hawaiian only permits CV syllables, therefore words must end with a vowel 8. (4pts.) Articulation and IPAsymbols for: ● glottal stop / ʔ /  - stopped airflow at vocal folds articulated at the glottis ● all fricatives in English, German, Halq'emeylem, and Hawaiian English - continuous airflow, heavy friction, voiceless vs. voiced /f/ /v/ articulated at the lips & teeth /s/ /z/ articulated at the ridge /ʃ/ /ʒ/ articulated at the front palate /ϴ/ /ð/ articulated between the beeth German /f/ /v/ articulated at the lips & teeth Lost > /ϴ/ /ð / became /d/ /s/ /z/ articulated at the ridge /ʃ/ /ʒ/ articulated at the front palate /x/ articulated at the back palate /h/ articulated at the glottis Halq’emeylem /ϴ/ articulated between lips and ridge /s/ articulated at ridge /ʃ/ exists on the surface but is not distinctive from s, between ridge and soft palate /x/ voiceless fricative at the soft palate /χ/ voiceless fricative at uvula (as for stop /q/) /h/ articulated at the uvula /ɬ/ voiceless version of /l/ with heavier friction, articulated at the ridge Hawaiian - no fricatives ● uvular fricatives (voiced and voiceless) - constricting airflow through a narrow channel at the uvula /χ/ voiceless uvular fricative in Halq’emeylen /ʁ/ voiced uvular fricative in German ● voiceless uvular stop - /q/ articulated at the uvula, blocking airflow in the vocal tract ● ejectives /p/ , /q/ close both vocal folds and stop in mouth - uvula in Halq’emeylem ● nasal consonants (including the three nasal stops in English) produced by allowing air to flow through the nose English nasals are always voices /m/ between lips /n/ between teeth /ŋ/ back of palate 9. Features of Cockney and RP dialects ● Cockney - optional h-loss, transformation of fricatives from θ to f , ð to v ● RP - once had h-loss but h came back in 19th cent. under prescriptive pressure - /əw/ instead of /o/ and r-loss in final position 10. Geographic locations for Indo-Aryan, Dravidian,Austronesian, andAfroasiatic families Indo-Aryan India, Sri Lanka Dravidian Southern India Austronesian SoutheastAsia, Oceania Afro-Asiatic NorthAfrica, Middle East 11. Sprachbund (concept) and the Northwest Coast Sprachbund - L13 Agroup of languages, with no single historical source, that have come to share many features through borrowing and contact ● languages in an area grow more similar over time through borrowings of sounds and words ● Northwest Coast Sprachbund was the area in which the Wakashan and Kwak'wala languages grew similar 12. Role of aspiration and in Indo-Aryan systems,
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