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Final

Immunology-Practice Exam.pdf

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Department
Microbiology
Course Code
MICB 202
Professor
Tracy Kion

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1 T HE U NIVERSITY O F B RITISH C OLUMBIA M ICROBIOLOGY 202 P RACTICE E XAM -S TYLE Q UESTIONS – MMUNOLOGY Recommended time for completion: 80 minutes N AME:________________________ S TUDENT #__________________ READ THIS! FAILURE TO FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS WILL DELAY THE GRADING OF YOUR EXAM 1.All students must adhere to the Faculty of Science rules governing formal examinations (see next page). 2.This exam has 37 questions. S-choice questions have one answer. Other multiple- choice questions will require you to select two or more answers – this is indicated in the question stem (all must be correct in order to receive the point). This exam has 6 double-sided pages including the cover page. 3.Record all multiple choice responses IN DARK PENCIL on the computer answer sheet — NOT on the question paper. Rough work may be done on the question paper, but nothing written on it will be graded. 4.Make sure to fill in the bubbles for your name (Fam) and your 8 digitven name LAST student number IN PENCIL. Other student information isNOT required. IN INK, sign the question paper and the answer sheet in the spaces provided. Your exam paper will NOT be marked if this is not done correctly. 5.Students MUST record their answers onto their answer sheeNOduring the time allowed for the exam. writing will be permitted after the time allowed for the exam has expired.NO appeals will be considered. 6.The question paperMUST be returned with the answer sheet. An answersheet without question paper will NOT be graded. In this regard, students areSTRONGLY CAUTIONED to guard against theft of their question paper by other students. NO appeal relating to loss of a question paper by theft will be considered. 7.The invigilators will NOT answer any clarifyStudents must interpret andam. answer each question on their own. 8.NOTE: There will be questions that require one answer or two answers on the actual exam. You will be told how many bubbles to f ill in for each question. Actual exam questions will have a maximum of 5 answers to choose from and you will not see the phrase “For this question, pick as many answers as necessary to correctly answer the question”. 2 Faculty of Science Rules GoverningFormal Examinations #1. Each candidate must be prepared to produce, upon request, a Library/AMS card for identification. #2. Candidates are not permitted to ask questions of the invigilators, except in cases of supposed errors or ambiguities in examination questions. #3. No candidate shall be permitted to enter the examination room after the expiration of on -half hour from the scheduled starting time, or to leave during the first half hour of the examination. #4. Candidates suspected of any of the following, or similar, dishonest practices shall be immediately dismissed from the examination and shall be liable to disciplinary action: • Having at the place of writing any books, papers or memoranda, calculators, computers, audio or video cassette players or other memory aid devices, other than those authorized by the examiners. • Speaking or communicating with other candidates. • Purposely exposing written papers to the view of other candidates. The plea of accident or forgetfulness shall not be received. #5. Candidates must not destroy or mutilate any examination material; must hand in all examination papers; and must not take any examination material from the examination room without permission of the invigilator. 3 READ EACH QUESTION STEM CAREFULLY. THERE ARE NO PARTIAL MARKS FOR QUESTIONS REQUIRING MORE THAN ONE ANSWER. You will not see the phrase “For this question, pick as many answers as necessary to correctly answer the question” in the actual exam, but they are a very good way to test your knowledge of the material which is why they are used here. 1. Which one of the following statements BEST describes a neutrophil? (a) A special type of macrophage that will activate T helper cells. (b) A polymorphonuclear leukocyte that can phagocytose bacteria. (c) A polymorphonuclear leukocyte that makes antibodies. (d) A type of macrophage - when its in the blood its called a neutrophil, and when it moves into the tissue it differentiates into a macrophage. (e) A polymorphonuclear leukocyte that present antigen to helper T cells. 2. Which of the following two statements describe what do neutrophils and macrophages have in common? (a) They both secrete cytokines to activate T cells. (b) They can be display pathogen peptides on MHC (class) II to T cells. (c) They are both derived from myeloid stem cells. (d) They arrive at the site of infection simultaneously and start to work immediately. (e) They engulf and digest bacteria. 3. For this question, pick as many answers as necessary to correctly answer the question. Adaptive immune responses are concentrated in the secondary immune organs such as: (a) thymus. (b) lymph nodes. (c) bone marrow. (d) kidney. (e) spleen. 4. Mammals have Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that act in a manner similar to those of insects. While not specific to a particular pathogen, a TLR can recognize a kind of macromolecule that is absent from vertebrates but present in/on certain groups of pathogens. Which two of the following molecules are most likely to be recognized by a particular TLR that defends some type of microorganisms? (a) lipopolysaccharides (b) double-stranded DNA (c) double-stranded RNA (d) glycoproteins (e) phospholipids 4 5. If a newborn were accidentally given a drug that destroyed the thymus, what would MOST LIKELY happen? (a) The cells would lack MHC (class) I molecules on their surface. (b) The humoral immunity would be missing. (c) Genetic rearrangement of antigen receptors would not occur. (d) The T cells would not mature and differentiate appropriately. (e) The B cells would be reduced in number and antibodies would not form. 6. B6 and B6-nu/nu (B6 nude) are two strains of inbred mice that are frequently used in immunological research. They are genetically identical except for a mutation in the nu gene which controls the development of the thymus gland as well as hair development. B6-nu/nu mice do not have a thymus gland and are hairless (hence the name, B6 nude). What cell types should you find in a blood sample taken from a B6 nude mouse? (a) rbc only (b) rbc and neutrophils only (c) rbc, neutrophils and macrophages (d) rbc, and all of the white blood cells except for T cells (e) rbc, and all of the white blood cells including T cells 7. While changing the cage of a B6 nude mouse, you notice it has a sliver in its front paw. The sliver came from the wood-chips which were used as bedding. Since the bedding is soiled, you expect a smaller number of bacteria to be present in the wound. What should you do? (a) Panic, get the first aid kit, wash the mouse's paw with antiseptic and carefully bandage it. (b) There is nothing you can do. The bacteria will multiply in the mouse and it will unfortunately die of a bacterial infection. (c) Do nothing. The neutrophils of the innate immune system of the mouse should be able to eliminate the bacteria. (d) Transfuse the mouse with some T helper cells from a normal B6 mouse. The transplanted T helper cells can help the B6 nude mouse's B cells make Ab. (e) Do a bone marrow transplant using bone marrow from a normal B6 mouse and hope that the B6 nude mouse will be able to develop a normal adaptive immune response. 8. Inflammatory responses may include which two of the following? (a) Clotting proteins migrating away from the site of infection. (b) Increased activity of phagocytes in an inflamed area. (c) Reduced permeability of blood vessels to conserve plasma (d) Release of substances to decrease the blood supply to an inflamed area. (e) Release of substances to promote the release of white blood cells from bone marrow. 5 9. Which two statements about the complement system are TRUE? (a) These proteins are involved in innate immunity and not adaptive immunity. (b) These proteins are involved in adaptive immunity but not innate immunity. (c) These proteins can be activated by interacting with an IgG that has bound to the surface of a pathogen. (d) These proteins are one group of antimicrobial proteins acting together in cascade fashion. (e) These proteins act individually to attack and lyse microbes. 10. The number of MHC protein combinations possible in a given population is enormous. However, an individual in that population has only a couple of MHC possibilities. Why? (a) The MHC proteins are made from several different gene regions that are capable of rearranging in a number of ways. (b) MHC proteins from one individual can only be of MHC (class) I or MHC (class) II. (c) Each of the MHC genes has a large number of alleles, but each individual only inherits 2 for each gene. (d) Once a B cell has matured in the bone marrow, it is limited to two MHC response categories. (e) Once a T cell has matured in the thymus, it can only respond to two MHC categories. 11. A bone marrow transplant may not be appropriate from a given donor (Jane) to a given recipient (Jane's cousin Bob), even though Jane has previously given blood for one of Bob's needed transfusions. Which one of the following might account for this? (a) Jane's blood type is a match to Bob's but her MHC proteins are not. (b) A blood type match is less stringent than a match required for transplant because blood is more tolerant of change. (c) For each gene, there is only one blood allele but many tissue alleles. (d) Jane's MHC (class) II genes are not expressed in bone marrow. (e) Bob's immune response has been made inadequate before he receives the transplant. 12. For this question, pick as many answers as necessary to correctly answer the question. During an immune response, foreign peptides are presented by _______ molecules to _______ cells. (a) MHC (class) I, cytotoxic T (b) MHC (class) II, helper T (c) MHC (class) I, helper T (d) MHC(class) II, cytotoxic T (e) MHC (class) II, helper T and B 6 13. Which of the following statements about MHC proteins is NOT TRUE? (a) MHC (class) I proteins present antigenic peptides and are recognized by the T cell receptor and the CD8 protein. (b) MHC (class) II proteins presenting antigenic peptides identify normal cells as foreign and result in their cytotoxic destruction. (c) MHC (class) I proteins generally occur on all cells of the immune system. (d) MHC (class) II proteins are distributed on only a few cell types, for example; macrophage, dendritic and B cells. (e) MHC (class) II proteins present antigenic peptides and are recognized by the T cell receptor and the CD4 protein. 14. For this question, pick as many answers as necessary to correctly answer the question. Which of the following types of MHC molecules would you expect to find on a human dendritic cell that had engulfed a bacterium? (a) HLA-A (b) HLA-B (c) HLA-C (d) HLA-DP (e) HLA-DR (f) HLA-DQ 15. For this question, pick as many answers as necessary to correctly answer the question. Which of the following types of MHC molecules would you expect to find on a fibroblast from a human patient? (a) HLA-A (b) HLA-B (c) HLA-C (d) HLA-DP (e) HLA-DR (f) HLA-DQ 16. For this question, pick as many answers as necessary to correctly answer the question. Which of the following feature(s) is/are shared by MHC (class) I and MHC (class) II molecules? (a) expressed by mature dendritic cells. (b) expressed by most cells in the body. (c) expressed only by the cells of the body when the host is infected with a pathogen. (d) associated with self-peptides in the absence of infection by pathogen. (e) associated intracellularly at specific stages and at the cell surface with β2-microglobulin. 7 17. Which of the following uniquely distinguishes the T cell receptor (TCR) from an antibody? (a) The TCR can function as a cell surface antigen receptor. (b) The TCR polypeptides is composed of domains (regions) - an amino terminal variable portion at determines the binding specificity and a constant portion that determines the
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