**drugs with respiratory indications are marked with asterisks**
Empirical antibiotic therapy: abx is selected by ability to kill microorganism known to be the most
common cause of infection. Specimens from suspected area should be cultured in an attempt to
ID a causative orgamisnm. Cultures should be obtained before therapy is initiated.
Prophylactic abx therapy: used to prevent infection.
therapeutic response: decrease in speciﬁc signs and symptoms of infection
subtherapeutic: signs and symptoms do not improve (d/t incorrect route, inadequate drainage of
abscess, poor drug penetration to infected area, insufﬁcient serum levels of drug, bacterial
Abx therapy is considered toxic when serum levels are too high, or when pt. has an allergic
reaction or other major adverse reaction to drug, incl., rash, itching, hives, fever, chills, joint
pain, difﬁculty breathing, or wheezing. GI discomfort/diarrhea are common, not severe enough o
Superinfections can occur when abx reduce or eliminate normal bacterial ﬂora.
Second infection follows ﬁrst infection from external source
Resistance: major cause is overprescription. Another factor is tendency of many patients not to
complete abx regimen.
Host factors: age, allergy history, kidney and liver function, pregnancy, genetic characteristics,
site of infection, host defences
Pedi: tetracyclines may affect dev’t of teeth or bones. Fluoroquinolones may affect bone or
cartilage devt. Sulfonamines may displace bilirubin from albumin and precipitate kernicterus
(hyperbilirubinemia) in neonates
Geri: Depending on liver and kidney function, dosage adjustments may be necessary
Penicillins and sulphonamides - often allergic reactions, incl. anaphylactic shock
ALWAYS CHART: difﬁculty breathing, signiﬁcant rash, hives, severe GI intolerance.
Teratogens: drugs that cause devt abnormalities in fetus
RTI = respiratory tract infection
URT = upper respiratory traft
LRT = lower respiratory tract
URI/LRI = upper/lower respiratory tract infection