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PHIL 102 notes.doc

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL 102
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Spring

Description
Socrates91112Euthyphro399 BCE Socrates meets Euthyphro at the King Archons Court Euthyphro has charged his father with murder Socrates has been charged with corrupting the young and inventing new gods Euthyphro says that in his case the only question is whether his father acted justly Socrates asks Euthyphro to teach him about the nature of justice Compare the Latin pietas and Greek eusebia with justice piety responsibility trustworthiness loyalty Euthyphros first answerI say that piety means prosecuting the unjust individual who has committed murder or sacrilege or any other such crime as I am doing now whether he is your father or your mother or whoever he is and I say that impiety means not prosecuting himeven Zeus bound his own father Cronos for devouring his children Socrates is skeptical for two reasons such stories are hard to prove he didnt ask for a list of pious actions but for a definition of piety Euthypros second answerWhat is pleasing to the gods is pious and what is not pleasing to them is impiousdivine command theory Socrates is skeptical since there are quarrels and disagreements among the gods so the same actions will be both pleasing and displeasing to the gods Euthyphros third answerPiety is what all the gods love and impiety is what they all hateon important issues like murder there will be no difference of opinion Socrates is skeptical for two reasons even on important questions there are likely to be disagreements are pious actions are loved by the gods because they are pious or are pious actions pious because the gods love them Euthyphro dilemma if they are loved by the gods because they are pious this means they cant be pious because they are loved by the gods this means they have to be pious for another reason SOCR Now consider this question Do the gods love piety because it is pious or is it pious because they love itEUTH I do not understand you SocratesSOCR I will try to explain myself we speak of a thing being carried and carrying and being led and leading and being seen and seeing and you understand that all such expressions mean different things and what the difference isEUTH Yes I think I understandSOCR And we talk of a thing being loved of a thing loving and the two are differentEUTH Of courseSOCR Now tell me is a thing which is being carried in a state of being carried because it is carried or for some other reasonEUTH No because it is carriedSOCR And a thing is in a state of being led because it is led and of being seenbecause it is seenEUTH CertainlySOCR Then a thing is not seen because it is in a state of being seen it is in a state of being seen because it is seen and a thing is not led because it is in a state of being led it is in a state of being led because it is led and a thing is not carried because it is in a state of being carried it is in a state of being carried because it is carriedSOCR Then the same is true here as in the former cases A thing is not loved by those who love it because it is in a state of being loved it is in a state of being loved because they love itEUTH NecessarilySOCR Well then Euthyphro what do we say about piety Is it not loved by all the gods according to your definitionEUTH YesSOCR Because it is pious or for some other reasonEUTH No because it is piousSOCR Then it is loved by the gods because it is pious it is not pious because it is loved by themEUTH It seems soSocrates key argumentEuthyphro claims thatan action is pious because it is loved by the gods But in answer to Socrates question Do the gods love piety because it is pious or is it pious because they love it He also claims thatan action is loved by the gods because it is pious So just asan object is in a state of being seen because it is seen an object is in a state of being carried because it is carried It follows that there must be some other reason that makes pious acts piousUntil we know this reason we wont know the nature of piety or justiceReligion and ethicsBasic issueIs there a necessary connection between religion and ethicsEuthyphro says yes Socrates is skeptical Divine command theoryjusticepiety
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