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Philosophy 102.docx

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University of British Columbia
PHIL 102

Phil 102 September 112012Readings Chapters 1 2Platos EuthyphroThe year 399 BCE in the citystate of AthensSpartans better land fightersAthenians better sea warriors Spartans ruined AthensSocrates meets Euthyphro at the King Archons law courtEuthyphro has charged his father with murder back then it was up to the family to lay chargesSocrates has been charged with corrupting the young and inventing new godsEuthyphro says that in his case the only question is whether his father acted justly why are you so sure it was right to charge your father with murder Have you acted justlySocrates asks Euthyphro to teach him about the nature of justiceCompare the Latin pietas and Greek eusebia with1 Justice2Piety3 Responsibility4 Trustworthiness5 LoyaltyIt is overall about doing the right thing The overall translation is tell me about piety and it happens to have religious undertonesWhat is PietyEuthyphros First AnswerI say that piety means prosecuting the unjust individual who has committed murder or sacrilege or any such crime as I am doing nowmeans not prosecuting himEven Zeus bound his own father Cronos for devouring his childrenSocrates is sceptical for two reasons1Such stories are hard to prove2He didnt ask for a list of pious actions but for a definition of pietyEuthyphros second answerWhat is pleasing to the gods is pious and what is not pleasing to them is impiousWhat justice comes from is from the command of the gods If something pleases the gods it is rightSocrates is sceptical since There are quarrels and disagreements among the gods some gods would find Euth right and some would find him wrongAction may be pleasing to some and not for othersEuthyphros thirs answerpiety is what all gods love and impiety is what they all hateOn important issues like murder there will be no difference of opinionSocrates is sceptical for two reasonsEven on important questions there are likely to be disagreementsPious actions are loved by the gods because they are pious why do the gods love some actions but not others Why do they command some actions but not othersThis means they cant be pious because they are loved by the godsThis means they have to be pious or just for some other reason Key QuotationPages 9Socrates Now consider this question Do the gods love piety because it is pious contd to 12Actions are loved by the gods because they are the right thing to love Socrates Key ArgumentEuthyphro claims thatAn action is pious because it is loved by the godsBut in answer to Socrates question do the gods love piety because it is pious or is it pious becayse they love itHt also claims thatAn action is loved by the gods because it is piousSo just asAn object is in a state of being seen because it is seenAn object is in a state of being carried because it is carriedIt follows that there must be some other reason that makes pious actions piousUntil we know this reason we wont know the nature of piety or justiceReligion and EthicsBasic IssueIs there a necessary connection between religion and ethicsEuthyphro says yes Socrates is scepticalDivine Command TheoryJusticePietyAn action is only right if it is commanded by the godsSocratic SkepticismWouldnt the gods command the action because it is rightHumes Three Rules for Better Writing
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