Exam Preparation - Part 1 Key Concepts.docx

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University of British Columbia
Political Science
POLI 100
Barbara Arneil

Lecture 1 & 2 What is Politics? Politics: o ANCIENT DEFINITION: The Art of Governing o MODERN DEFINITION: The Science of Governing o POST-MODERN DEFINITION: The construction of and resistance to power in society as a whole Polis: the root of the world politics; means city-state Platos The Simile of the Cave o Cave analogy shows the need for a philosopher king Philosopher King = theoretical rulers o Philosopher goes out of cave and sees Sun, and sees that world has truth Return to cave and sees that fire is not real: projects shadows o Best government is to find a future ruler a career they like better than government Rich government in terms of the happiness of a right and rational life Machiavellis The Prince o Politics is about the power of the ruler to control fortune or fate Analyzed politics for what it really is: A STRUGGLE FOR POWER The virtu of the prince must overcome the fortuna of politics o Only able to shape fortune; ex: river + dam Wise prince should always try to shape, control, and foresee events and have people to respect him; fear him but not hate him PLATO: THE ART OF GOVERNING MACHIAVELLI: THE ART OF POWER The art of governing The art of power How politics ought to be, how to creatAnalysis for what politics really is: a a good life struggle for power rather than what it ought to be Purpose of politics was to create justPurpose of politics is to ensure the and a just state power of the Prince and maintain order Reason rules over ambition, pride, The foresight of the Prince must desire, and passion overcome fate of politics Best leaders are those who can see Wise prince should always try to shape, reason and truth, not for their desirecontrol, and foresee events and have people respect him, not hate Modern Age: Question & Challenge authority and tradition through science o individuals are paramount (challenge authority) o belief in science (challenge religion) o development of the free market (challenge Feudalism) o idea of progress/innovation (challenge tradition) Thomas Hobbes: o A liberal philosopher o Leviathan (1651): English Civil War About social contract theory, starting with the individual Social Contract: to ensure security, citizens agree to absolute monarch Behavioural Revolution: o Empirical testing by statistically analyzing peoples opinions through polling o Study politics through attitudes of individuals o Behavioural Approach is rooted in scientific modes of investigation and analysis Class Analysis (Marx & Weber) o Social scientific analysis o Politics is about class conflict; state represents dominant class o Analyze economics and impact on politics Elite Theory o Study of politics through the dominant class (those who rule in self-interest, the ruled) Pluralism: study of politics through groups; state acts as neutral mediator Institutionalism (Legal Institutionalism): A.V. Dicey o Dominant school of politics; approach to study of politics Leads to Behavioural Revolution o A social theory that focuses on developing a sociological view of institutions The way they interact and the effects of institutions on society Power to vs. Power over o Power to: the capacity to realize personal or collective goals; being empowered o Power over: focuses attention on inequalities in the distribution of power, as well as the forces that hold regimes of inequality in place Lecture 3: What is the State? State: Apparatus of government, consisting of legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government and all institutions to which they delegate power Treaty of Westphalia (1645): end of the Holy Roman Empire & Imperialism o Replace with territorial integrity, the basis of the modern state o Create states Social Contract: o argument by Hobbes & Locke that individuals have the authority to establish a government Branches of State: Executive Legislative Judicial Develop/enforce laws Pass Laws Interpret Laws Levels of State: Coercive Socialisation/Education Administrative Police, military, prisoSchools & universities Bureaucracy Elitism: the dominant class view on politics Pluralism: people with a common view come together to try to result in common good Night Watchman State: minimalist state o Governments responsibilities is only limited to protecting individuals and defending country Neo-Liberal State: MINIMAL INTERVENTION o State where free market is expanded through cutbacks in social spending, deregulation of industry, and privatization of public services; individual freedom and responsibility Welfare State: state where government programs and policies protect citizens from illness, unemployment, and long-term disabilities; safety social net Liberal Democracy: The form of government prevalent in contemporary Western countries. Governments are selected through regular elections in which all citizens of voting age eligible to participate. Liberal democracies are particularly concerned with protecting the freedom of individual citizens against the arbitrary use of power by the state. Hence, some formal expression of the rights of citizens can be found in the constitutional documents of liberal democracies Lecture 4: The State: Power, Authority, and Sovereignty Power: from pouvoir (to be able to) o 1) Ability to do something o 2) Ability to convince others to do something D.D. Raphael o 3) Ability to force others to do something Conservative/RealPolitik Liberal Marxist Hobbes & Machiavelli Locke, J.S. Mill Karl Marx Power of state (though Power of state is dangerous; Power of state is illusionary; persuasion/coercion) is - To be kept in check by rights of - Real power exists in economic necessary to maintain order in citizen and constitution realm an anarchic world
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