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Political Science
POLI 240
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Poli 240 May 16 2013 PLATOClassical Athens 5 BCEpopulation of about 250000 50000 with civil rights rest are slavesslaves acquired from trade wars slaves having babiesAthenian hegemony until 430 BCEPeloponnesian War 43044 BCEAthenian Nacy and allies Delian League vs Spartan Army and alliesPeloponnesian League Thucydides Melian Dialogue 4165 BCE remains a seminal work of IRAthenian fleetarmy vs MelosMelos was a tiny neutral city Athenians asked for their surrender they refused The strong do what they will and the weak suffer what they mustA revolution establishes the proSpartan oligarchy The 30 Tyrants led by Critias 404403 BCEAthenian democracy reestablished with a coup 403 BCEThe wind turned quickly Sparta proves to be a worse tyrant than Athens Major cities Thebes Corinth Agos switch sides 370BCE Sparta diminishes Thebes rises until Philip II of Macedon Father of Alexander the GreatHow can I be the wisest man when I know nothingDunning Kreuger Effecta cognitive bias that leads unskilled or lessskilled individuals to overrate their knowledge and capacityremarkably skilledknowledgeable individuals overrate others and underrate themselvesthe incompetent individual makes an error about the self overvaluing the lack of competence while the competent person makes an error about others thinking them as knowledgeable as themselves thereby undervaluing their competence Socrates himselfdirt poor takes no money from his pupils as is the customunpopular political connectionsomentor admirer and lover of Alcibiades oFriend of Critias and mentor of Plato who is the nephew of CritiasWide following from rich and influential families too oPeople of educated backgrounds gadfly of Athens but plato considered him the wisest and most just of all men399 BC Socrates tried in front of a jury of AthensCharges corrupting the YouthImpiety Alcibiades The Dreamlife or so it beganvery handsome very rich great family great connections very clever strategicgenius fantastic diplomat1Denies the generalship of Athenian forces headed for Sicily defects to Sparta to catastrophic consequences for Athens 2From there defects to Persian Empire once things get ugly convinces the Aegean Satrap of the Empire to switch sides from Sparta to Athensdefects back to Athens3As things turn ugly again runs to Phyrgia4Killed in 404 BCE house set on fire shot with dozens of arrows and stabbed repeatedlyHighlights from the defenseBreaks ALL the rulesNo witnessesNo beggingsNo emotional pleaseNo rhetoricsEven worse healmost consistently boastscompares himself to Achilles and HerculesBelittle othersInsults politicians poets craftsmen philosophers which were in the juryRepeatedly says hell keep doing what he has been doing hes not wrongClaims he was a gift form god For all intense and purposes the trial and execution was just The decision of the jury was reached after all the procedures were properly followed It is impossible to exaggerate the effect of the trial and the execution of Socrates on Plato To him this was unfair and absolutelys unjust 380 BCEPlato almost 50 Aristotle 4 years oldIn the Republic Plato asks What isA Just PersonSoul and a Just CityStateDo we need to be just WhyPreviously in the Republic1The Just CityPlato is asked what is justiceoWell it depends theres a just city and a just personoHe thinks justice is one thing and whether it is in an individual or a city it will have the same shape 2Proper Orderingyou cannot be just if you do not have a proper orderingprioritizing of things 3One man One jobindividuals have three souls gold silver and iron souls ranks of how good a person is and what they are destined for4Society always trumps the individual
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