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POLI 327 Midterm: Poli 327 EU Integration Midterm 1 Notes

5 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
POLI 327
Kurt Huebner

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Poli  327:  European  Integration   Midterm  1  Review   History  of  the  EU:   -­‐  WW2  as  the  catalyst  (nation  state  viewed  as  locus  of  nationalist  aggression)   -­‐  Morgenthau  Plan  would  prevent  Germany  from  becoming  an  industrial  power   again,  US  rejects  because  afraid  of  Soviets  dominating  Europe   -­‐  1948,  Marshall  Plan  is  put  forward  instead  to  rebuild  Europe;  it  doesn’t  answer  the   “German  question”,  France  remains  concerned   -­‐  1949,  Council  of  Europe  created:  still  exists  today  but  not  connected  to  EU   (promotes  cultural/political  values)     -­‐  1950,  Schuman  Declaration  leads  to  the  European  Coal  and  Steel  Community   signed  by  Belgium,  France,  West  Germany,  Italy,  the  Netherlands  and  Luxembourg   in  1951   -­‐  1952,  Court  of  Justice  of  the  EU  formed   -­‐  1957,  Treaty  of  Rome:  Netherlands  proposes  to  abolish  all  tariffs  and  quotas  and   establish  a  common  external  tariff  (form  a  customs  union),  leads  to  European   Economic  Community  being  formed  in  1958     -­‐  1958,  Council  of  the  EU  and  European  Commission  formed   -­‐  1973,  Great  Britain  joins  European  Economic  Community   -­‐  1974,  EU  council  informally  established  (formalized  1992;  official  2009)   -­‐  1979,  First  direct  elections  in  European  Parliament   -­‐  1986,  Single  European  Act  leads  towards  deeper  integration;  adds  shared  sectors   of  environment,  R&D,  economic  and  social  cohesion   -­‐  1991,  Maastricht  Treaty:  European  Economic  Community  renamed  the  European   Union  in  1993   -­‐  28  member  states  today,  Turkey  still  in  process  of  application     Regional  Integration  Schemes:   1.  Preferential  trading  area:  allow  access  to  economies  by  removing  some  tariffs   2.  Free  trade  area:  no  tariffs  at  all;  each  country  still  has  trade  sovereignty  (NAFTA)   3.  Customs  union:  free  trade  union  with  a  common  policy  regarding  tariffs  and   measures  having  equivalent  effect  (no  sovereignty  over  trade  policy)   4.  Common  market:  freedom  of  exchange  of  goods,  services,  capital  &  labour,  the   first  move  toward  creating  a  single  market  (ex.  EEC)   5.  Economic  union:  common  market  +  common  currency   6.  Economic  and  monetary  union:  economic  union  +  common  fiscal  policy  (US  of  EU)     EU  Governance  Regime:   1.  European  Parliament:  directly  elected  MPs  (Brussels/Luxembourg/Strasbourg)   • Passes  EU  laws  together  with  the  Council  of  EU  based  on  Commission   proposals,  represents  European  citizens   • Current  president=  Martin  Schulz  (social  democrat)   2.  European  Council:  heads  of  state  of  all  EU  members  (Brussels)   • Defines  general  political  direction  of  the  EU  +  its  priorities  especially  foreign   affairs;  no  power  to  pass  laws   • Current  president  =  Donald  Tusk   3.  Council  of  the  European  Union:  ministers  appointed  by  each  state  (Brussels)   • Voice  of  EU  government,  adopts  laws  and  coordinates  policies   • Adoption  requires  55%  (72%  if  not  proposed  by  commission)  of  vote,  must   represent  <65%  of  the  population   • Rotating  presidency  every  6  months   4.  European  Commission:  1  commissioner  per  country  (Brussels)   • Promotes  general  interest  of  EU  by  proposing  and  enforcing   legislation/budget,  represents  the  EU  internationally   • Current  president=  Jean  Claude  Juncker   5.  Court  of  Justice  of  the  EU:  1  judge  per  country  +  11  advocates  general,  (1  judge   per  country  for  general  court  +  7  judges  for  civil  service  tribunal)  [Luxembourg]   • Ensures  consistency  of  laws  across  all  member  states,  interprets  laws  and   ensures  they  are  followed     Theories  of  Integration:   1.  Neo-­‐Functionalism:  Ernst  B.  Haas  (1958),  Uniting  of  Europe  as  grand  theory   • Spillover  hypothesis:  co-­‐operation  leads  necessitates  more  co-­‐operation   • Elite  socialization  hypothesis:  a  class  of  supranational  political  elite  will   emerge  with  a  European  perspective  on  problem  solving  (“Eurocrats”)   • Supranational  Interest  Group  Hypothesis:  emerging  supra-­‐national  groups   impose  their  agendas  on  pre-­‐existing  states   • Locus  of  neo-­‐functionalism=more  and  more  the  European  Commission   • End  result  will  be  “US  of  Europe”/system  in  which  states  are  near  obsolete   Critiques:  Always  assumes  more  integration  over  time  =  can’t  explain  disintegration,   underestimates  the  role  of  the  nation  state   2.  Intergovernmentalism:  Morgenthau/Realism,  Waltz/Neo-­‐realism   • EU  is  just  an  international  organization  made  by  states  acting  under  an   anarchic  system;  self-­‐interested  decisions  based  on  position  in  global  system   • EU  only  exists  because  of  a  lease  of  sovereignty  from  its  members   • Locus  of  all  intergovernmentalism=the  European  Council;  states=main  actors   • Supranational  institutions  are  just  “commitment  devices”  for  states  to  use   3.  Liberal  Intergovernmentalism:  Moravscik;  EU  project  is  the  outcome  of   preference  convergence  between  most  powerful  member  states   • Demand  for  cooperation/integration  and  Supply  of  Integration  meet  together   • National  preferences:  domestic  policy  making  and  preferences  as  variables   • Relative  power  shaped  by  asymmetric  interdependence:  some  countries   more  dependent  than  others   • Institutional  delegation:  states  delegate  authority  to  supranational   institutions=trade  off  sovereignty  for  guaranteed  compliance/commitment   4.  New  Institutionalisms:   • Rational  choice  institutionalism:  institutions  are  the  ‘rules  of  the  game’  actors   use  them  to  maximize  their  utility  within  the  bounds  of  these  rules;  claims   that  intergovernmental  models  underestimate  the  causal  importance  of   formal  EU  rules  in  shaping  policy  outcome   • Principle  agent  approach:  states  (the  principals)  delegate  sovereignty  to  EU   institutions  (the  agents)  to  allow  credible  commitments     • Historical  institutionalism:  paths  chosen  early  on  in  institutions’  existence   tend  to  be  followed  because  the  set  of  decisions  available  now  are  limited  by   the  decisions  that  have  been  made  up  to  this  point  (path  dependency)  and   because  they  are  set  up  to  provide  increasing  returns  to  stick  with  the  norm;   critical  junctures  can  change  this  and  set  institutions  on  a  new  course   • Sociological  institutionalism/social  constructivism:  interests  &  preferences   are  constructed  not  pre-­‐given  and  constitute  agents,  the  development  o
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