Pol 347 Notes.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLI 347
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Spring

Description
Pol347Notes09112012HartsConceptofLaw1961ReplacingRexIMPORTANCErevitalizedjurisprudenceAnalyticaljurisprudenceandwordsCriticizesAustinbutstillapositivistAnewtheoryLAWASPRIMARYRULESDEFFECTSAsimpledefinitionnotpossiblenogenustowhichlawbelongsAnalyzetheconceptoflawanddevelopatheoryToelucidateamodernlegalsystemconsideracontrastingmodelasystemcomposedofprimaryrulesofobligationDontmurderCustomarylawSuchasystemunsuitableforacomplexsociety1uncertaintyastowhatrulesarelaw2toostatic3EnforcementinefficientbasedonsocialpressureSECONDARYRULESTheremedysecondaryrulesThemostimportantistheruleofrecognitionusedtodecidewhichrulesbelongtothelegalsystemInEnglandlawiswhatevertheQueeninparliamentenactsOthersecondaryrulesrelatetothecreationlegislatureandenforcementpoliceoflawTogetherprimaryandsecondaryrulesaretheheartofalegalsystemCONTRATHECOMMANDTHEORYHartalsoopposesAustinsideaoflawassovereigncommandManyfeaturesoflawdontfititItpartlyfitsacriminalstatutebutdistortsthelawofmarriagecontractswillswhichconferlegalpowersonindividualstocreateandmodifystructuresofrightsanddutiesLegallyunlimitedsovereignnotnecessaryforlawfederalsystemLawassanctionedcommandconfusesbeingobligedandhavinganobligationTheinternalpointofviewIflawissovereigncommandthenlawceaseswiththesovereignsdeathModernlegalsystemshaverulesaboutthecontinuityoflawREALFOUNDATIONTheruleofrecognitionisthefoundationofalegalsystemNewquestionsTheruleofrecognitiondetermineslegalvalidityButwhatdeterminesitsvalidityNotanotherruleinfiniteregressIthasadifferentvalidityitisusedandacceptedSocialfactpositivismAlsoalegalsystemexistsonlyifthereisasharedofficialacceptanceoftheruleofrecognitionButsubjectsdonthavetotaketheinternalpointofviewobedienceisenoughAlegalsystemexistsIftheprimaryrulesofobligationaregenerallyobeyedIfthesystemsruleofrecognitionisregardedasacommonpublicstandardbyofficialsCONCLUSIONHartsnewtheoryTheoldpositivismofsovereigncommandisreplacedbylawasasystemofrulesandsocialfactpositivismFivemeaningsofLegalPositivismHartsView1lawsarecommandslawexistsbypositionHobbes2separationoflawandmoralsthesisLawandmoralsaredifferentsocialordersordifferentwaysofregulatingbehaviortheyhavedifferentsanctionsetcvariouspossibleconnectionsbetweenlawandmoralitybutNONecessaryConnectionHart3Analyticaljurisprudenceconceptualinquiriesversushistoricalorsociologicalstudies4Lawisaclosedlogicalsystemnogapsinthelawmechanicaljurisprudence5ValuerelativismnoncognitivistinethicsKelsenSeptember1812HARTPOSITIVISMTHESEPARATIONOFLAWANDMORALS1958OBJECTIVEHartDefendsthedistinctionbetweenlawthatisandlawthatoughttobeandchallengesthenaturallawviewthatunjustlawsarenotlawsBenthamAustinPositivistsarenotdryanalystswhilecitiesburnVariouspositionsHartdoesrejectsomeoftheideasheldbyBenthamandAustinStillhedefendstheirseparationthesisagainstitsmoderncriticsAMERICANLEGALREALISTSTheyarguedthatjudgesdonotdecidedcasesmechanically1Oftenthereisnolegalruletoapply2NotobviouswhatthefactsareRuleandfactskepticismJudgeshavediscretionandexerciseitbasedonwhatoughttobethelawLawandmoralitymeetHartagreesuptoapointlegalformalismismistakenThecoreandpenumbraVehiclesintheparkButrealistswronglybelievethatjudicialdiscretionentailsafusionoflawandmoralityNotalloughtsaremoraloughtsDiscretioncanbeexercisedtoadvancewickedmoralpurposesPOSTWARGERMANYOnetimepositiviststurnedtonaturallawafterthehorrorsofHitlerRadbruchTheNuremburgtrialsWhatshouldbedonewithindividualswhohadperformedatrociousbutlegalactionsunderHitlerThewifehusbandexample1invokenaturallaw2enactretroactivecriminallegislation3donothing4notrialjustshootthemThecourtsadoptedthenaturallawapproachHartarguesthatretroactivelegislationshouldhavebeenenacteditwouldhavefocusedontherealissueSomelawsarewickedandoughtnottobeobeyedJUSTICEANDTHELEGALSYSTEMIndividuallawsneednotsatisfytherequirementsofmoralitybutalegalsystemmustotherwisenoonewouldobeyitAlsocertainmoralrulesagainstviolencearefoundinalllegalsystemsAgaintheideaoflawhasmoralaspectsLawsaregeneralrulesandassuchlimitarbitrarinessHartsreplyalegalsystemcouldsatisfytheseconditionsandstillbeunjustRestrictviolencebutexcludeslavesGenerallawsbutoppresseveryoneequallySuchalegalsystemisnotmoralTheseparationthesisremainssoundCONCLUSIONPositivismnotimmoralClarityandmoralproblemsMoralautonomydontsimplyobeylawbutjudgeitsmoralworthBenthamcontraboththeanarchistFrenchRevolutionandthereactionaryBlackstoneSEPTEMBER2012DWORKINLAWSAMBITIONSFORITSELF1985
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