POLI 101 Study Guide - Winter 2019, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Quebec, Province Of Canada, French Language

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14 Feb 2019
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Introduction to Canadian Politics
Chapter 1
Canadian provinces and locations
Ontario has a lot of power since most of the population is located in this province
Census Metropolitan Areas
1. Toronto
2. Montreal
3. Vancouver
4. Calgary
5. Ottawa
Early History
Archaeological remnants of human life dating back 30,000 years
Not much is known
Aboriginal people lived on the territory for thousands of years from coast to coast
Earliest Europeans: Vikings 1000 CE (Common Era)
Called it “Vinland”
Temporary
Arrived because of fishing
500 more years before the first permanent European settlements
Early Settlement
1500s
→ Settlement in St.John’s Newfoundland (British)
→ French, Portuguese, and Spanish also used East Coast harbours for bases,
primarily for fishing
1534s
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→ Jacques Cartier arrived in what is modern day Quebec, attempts settlement
Many British also arrived but mostly settled in USA
Jacques Cartier
An early French explorer to parts of Newfoundland and Quebec
The first to map major parts of what is now Quebec city and Montreal (Although he
thought he was in Asia)
Planted a cross and claimed the land in the name of France
Naming Canada-Kanata (The Iroquois term for settlement)
Attempted to set up a colony but disease, lack of supply and problematic relations
with the Iroquois led to abandonment of a settlement
First European Settlement
Samuel de Champlain
Another French explorer tasked with finding a suitable place for settlement
Originally created a small settlement in what is now Port Royal, NS
On his second trip, in 1608, he established Quebec City
Establish trading relations with Indigenous groups particularly the Huron and
Algonquin
Enemies of the Iroquois
Champlain ended up in battle with Huron against the Iroquois
First known use of European guns, forced Iroquois to scatter even
though they had significantly more warriors
Introduction of guns and conflict caused major shift in power and began entrench
French-Huron relations and later English-Iroquois relations.
Colonial Expansion
Next few hundred years: Colonies developed
“An area of land geographically remote from the metropolis (The centre of the
colonial power) and incorporated into the colonial empire either by the right of first
possession or by conquest”
Les Filles du Roi (The King’s Daughters)
Early settlements were staffed primarily by men
The King of France (Louis XIV) wanted to entice the men to stay in the colonies and wanted
to expand their numbers
1663 - 1673
Les Filles du Roi, unmarried orphans or widowed women (usually poor) sponsored
by the King, about 800 in total
Extremely successful in terms of expanding the population twice as fast as the baby
boom
Estimated that nearly 2/3 rd of French Canadians can trace their lineage back to a
Fille du Roi
Colonial Economies
Early trade was based on fishing, especially cod.
The trading with Indigenous peoples led to the fur trade, primarily of beaver pelts
Trading posts spread, but primarily two distinct areas
St. Lawrence River to Great Lakes
Rupert’s Land (Hudson Bay)
Fur trade
Primarily beaver pelts
For hats in Europe
Large scale trading and imperial desires led to permanent settlements missionary work, and
the development of political and economic systems
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Colonial Conflicts
French and Indian War (1753-1763)
North American front of the Seven Years War
Named after the “enemies” of Britain
Primarily in US territories, but extended up to NOva Scotia, Newfoundland, PEI and
QC
Battle of Plains of Abraham
September 13, 1759, lasted about one hour
British troops led by James Wolfe
French troops led by the Louis-Joseph de Montcalm
Treaty of Utrecht, 1713
A treaty after the war of Spanish Succession
France ceded Newfoundland and Acadian colonies to Britain
Tried to force Acadians to take an oath / allegiance to Britain
Acadian Expulsion 1755-1764
British forced out most Acadians
To nearby US colonies, Louisiana, Carribean, Europe
European Intervention
Treaty of Paris, 1763
Following France’s loss to Britain in the Seven Years War
France officially cedes North American territories to Britain
Royal Proclamation, 1763
Tried to stabilize North American colonies by providing rules and regulations for
colonial operations
Tried to reduce conflict with Aboriginal people by providing claims for territory and
rights
Attempt to colonize the French
Quebec Act 1774
1763 Royal Proclamation required settlers in New France to swear an allegiance to
the British crown, which included Protestantism
Aimed to assimilate the French population
Governor James Murray reported back to Britain that assimilation was not working
and he needed French cooperation to run the colonies
Quebec Act was intended to appease the French
Allowed for Catholicism to be practiced openly
Allowed for French civil law to continue although English criminal law was
maintained
Allowed seigneurial system to continue
Allowed Francophones to hold public office
Quebec Act Frustration
British settlers within “Canadian” colonies were frustrated by the Quebec Act
Disagree with seigneurial system wanted a free hold system
Did not believe French should be allowed to run for public office
British settlers in the 13 colonies (US) also viewed the Quebec Act as unacceptable
Part of a series of “unacceptable” Acts passed by Britain
Colonial Conflicts: American Revolution
1776: Southern colonies revolted against British crown
Those who fought for Britain and lost: the “Loyalists” fled to Canada (primarily modern day
Ontario and New Brunswick)
Borders and boundaries of newly sovereign, independent state “United States” were
negotiated throughout the early 1800s- the 49th parallel
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