PSYC 100 - Psychologists.pdf

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 100
Peter Graf

AP Psychology Psychologists Adler, Alfred– social interest determines behaviour; consciousness–center of personality; strive for superiority; try to compensate for inferiority complexes; birth order Ainsworth, Mary () – attachment; observed infants’ reactions when placed into a strange situation Asch, Solomon ()– conformity; normative influence and social influence; conducted a conformity experiment in 1951 and found that people are loathe to contradict the opinions of a group Babinsky reflex – when a baby’s foot is stroked, he or she will spread the toes Bandura, Albert – Learning and personality; observational learning; Social-cognitive theory (modeling); Reciprocal determinism (triadic reciprocality); Self-efficacy; Bobo dolls; aggression Baumrind, Diana () – parenting styles Binet, Alfred (1857-1911) – testing and individual differences; developed first intelligence test Broca, Paul - left frontal lobe (muscle movement involved in speech): associated with expressive language; damaged area –speech that makes sense, difficulty speaking Chomsky, Noam () – cognition; theorized that humans are born with a language acquisition device (ability to learn a language rapidly as children) Darley and Latane – Kitty Genovese Case Study; bystander effect (tendency for bystander to be less likely to help if other bystanders are present); bystander intervention (conditions under which people nearby are more and less likely to help someone); diffusion of responsibility (failure of bystander intervention, no one assumes responsibility for helping when several bystanders are present) David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel – Sensation and perception; Discovered feature detectors, groups of neurons in the visual cortex that respond to different types of visual stimuli Darwin, Charles (1809-1882) – theory of natural selection, innate and inborn knowledge and behaviour; ethology and evolutionary perspective Ebbinghas, H – Forgetting: Decay Model; rapid loss followed by gradual declining rate of loss Ellis, Albert – Rational Emotive Therapy; Cognitive Theorist Erikson, Eric – developmental psychology; psychoanalyst known for psychosocial stage development theory; personality profoundly influenced by our experiences with others AP Psychology Festinger and Carlsmith – cognitive dissonance; change in behaviour --> change in attitude Freud, Sigmund (1856-1939) – psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders (clinical, unconscious drives and repression, sexual drive influence thought and behaviour, early childhood experiences shape unconscious motivations); dream analysis; free association; psychosexual stages of personality (sensual pleasure from the world); structure of personality; defense mechanisms; states of consciousness Gardner, Howard – theory of multiple intelligences Gilligan, Carol () – developmental psychology; ethics of care; examined moral differences between boys and girls based on social rules and on ethic of caring and responsibility; challenged the universality of Kohlberg's moral development theory Harlow, Harry () – developmental psychology; monkey studies; importance of physical comfort in the form of attachment with parents Hoffman, () – categories of discipline Horney, Karen – Psychoanalytic, Basic childhood anxiety; personality continually mold by current fears and impulses, rather than childhood experiences James, William (1842-1910) – first psychology textbook (1890); introspection; theory of functionalism (how mental and behaviour processes function; adapt, survive, flourish); influenced by Darwin; opposed Wundt and Tichener Jung, Carl – psychoanalytic; focused on the rational and spiritual qualities of people; personality shaped by cumulative experiences of past generations Kohlberg, Lawrence () – 1981, 1984 sought to describe the development of moral reasoning; theory of moral development Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth () – stages associated with dying and death Loftus, Elizabeth – Cognition; Demonstrated the problems with eyewitness testimony and constructive memory Lorenz, Konrad – ethologist, imprinting; "Survival of the Fittest Theory" Maslow, Abraham (1908-1970) – Motivation and emotion, and treatment of psychological disorders; humanist perspective; Hierarchy of needs, self-actualization (choose our behaviours guided by physiological, emotional, spiritual needs) [see Rogers] Milgram, Stanley () – obedience to authority; conducted the classic obedience studies in 1974; found that people tend to obey authority figures Pavlov, Ivan (1849-1936) – physiologist; behaviourism [see Watson]; studied digestion in AP Psychology dogs; discovered conditioned reflexes; classical conditioning (learn to associate neutral stimuli with unconditioned stimuli that produces an unconditioned response to produce a conditioned response) Piaget, Jean () – cognitive perspective; cognitive development theory (intellectual development of children); worked for Binet; believed in genetics and experiences/ environment; shaped by errors we make Rescorla, Robert – Learning; Developed the contingency model of classical conditioning Rogers, Carl (1902-1987) – Treatment of psychological disorders, and personality; Humanistic psychologist- person (client)- centered theraphy and unconditional positive regard; Self theory of personality (individual choice and free will) [see Maslow] Schachter, Stanley – Motivation and emotion; Two-factor theory of emotion (physically aroused, cognitively label arousal) Skinner, B. F. (1904-1990) – behaviourism [see Watson]; rejected introspection; studied learning and effect of reinforcements (consequences, makes a behaviour more likely to occur, encourage or discourage certain responses), operant conditioning Spearman, Charles – found specific mental talents were highly correlated; all cognitive abilities showed common core Sternberg, Robert – Triarchic theory of intelligence (academic problem solving intelligence, practical intelligence, creative intelligence) Terman, Lewis – revised Binet’s IQ test, established norms for American children Titchener, Edward () – structuralism; brought introspection to the US Tolman, Edward – Latent learning; cognitive maps Vygotsky, Lev (1896-1934) – cognitive development; by age 7, children no longer think aloud; they internalize their culture’s language and rely on inner speech; children learn from interactions with other people Washburn, Margaret Floy (1871-1939) – first woman to r
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