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PSYC 100
Peter Graf

AP Psychology Psychologists Adler, Alfred– social interest determines behaviour; consciousness–center of personality; strive for superiority; try to compensate for inferiority complexes; birth order Ainsworth, Mary () – attachment; observed infants’ reactions when placed into a strange situation Asch, Solomon ()– conformity; normative influence and social influence; conducted a conformity experiment in 1951 and found that people are loathe to contradict the opinions of a group Babinsky reflex – when a baby’s foot is stroked, he or she will spread the toes Bandura, Albert – Learning and personality; observational learning; Social-cognitive theory (modeling); Reciprocal determinism (triadic reciprocality); Self-efficacy; Bobo dolls; aggression Baumrind, Diana () – parenting styles Binet, Alfred (1857-1911) – testing and individual differences; developed first intelligence test Broca, Paul - left frontal lobe (muscle movement involved in speech): associated with expressive language; damaged area –speech that makes sense, difficulty speaking Chomsky, Noam () – cognition; theorized that humans are born with a language acquisition device (ability to learn a language rapidly as children) Darley and Latane – Kitty Genovese Case Study; bystander effect (tendency for bystander to be less likely to help if other bystanders are present); bystander intervention (conditions under which people nearby are more and less likely to help someone); diffusion of responsibility (failure of bystander intervention, no one assumes responsibility for helping when several bystanders are present) David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel – Sensation and perception; Discovered feature detectors, groups of neurons in the visual cortex that respond to different types of visual stimuli Darwin, Charles (1809-1882) – theory of natural selection, innate and inborn knowledge and behaviour; ethology and evolutionary perspective Ebbinghas, H – Forgetting: Decay Model; rapid loss followed by gradual declining rate of loss Ellis, Albert – Rational Emotive Therapy; Cognitive Theorist Erikson, Eric – developmental psychology; psychoanalyst known for psychosocial stage development theory; personality profoundly influenced by our experiences with others AP Psychology Festinger and Carlsmith – cognitive dissonance; change in behaviour --> change in attitude Freud, Sigmund (1856-1939) – psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders (clinical, unconscious drives and repression, sexual drive influence thought and behaviour, early childhood experiences shape unconscious motivations); dream analysis; free association; psychosexual stages of personality (sensual pleasure from the world); structure of personality; defense mechanisms; states of consciousness Gardner, Howard – theory of multiple intelligences Gilligan, Carol () – developmental psychology; ethics of care; examined moral differences between boys and girls based on social rules and on ethic of caring and responsibility; challenged the universality of Kohlberg's moral development theory Harlow, Harry () – developmental psychology; monkey studies; importance of physical comfort in the form of attachment with parents Hoffman, () – categories of discipline Horney, Karen – Psychoanalytic, Basic childhood anxiety; personality continually mold by current fears and impulses, rather than childhood experiences James, William (1842-1910) – first psychology textbook (1890); introspection; theory of functionalism (how mental and behaviour processes function; adapt, survive, flourish); influenced by Darwin; opposed Wundt and Tichener Jung, Carl – psychoanalytic; focused on the rational and spiritual qualities of people; personality shaped by cumulative experiences of past generations Kohlberg, Lawrence () – 1981, 1984 sought to describe the development of moral reasoning; theory of moral development Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth () – stages associated with dying and death Loftus, Elizabeth – Cognition; Demonstrated the problems with eyewitness testimony and constructive memory Lorenz, Konrad – ethologist, imprinting; "Survival of the Fittest Theory" Maslow, Abraham (1908-1970) – Motivation and emotion, and treatment of psychological disorders; humanist perspective; Hierarchy of needs, self-actualization (choose our behaviours guided by physiological, emotional, spiritual needs) [see Rogers] Milgram, Stanley () – obedience to authority; conducted the classic obedience studies in 1974; found that people tend to obey authority figures Pavlov, Ivan (1849-1936) – physiologist; behaviourism [see Watson]; studied digestion in AP Psychology dogs; discovered conditioned reflexes; classical conditioning (learn to associate neutral stimuli with unconditioned stimuli that produces an unconditioned response to produce a conditioned response) Piaget, Jean () – cognitive perspective; cognitive development theory (intellectual development of children); worked for Binet; believed in genetics and experiences/ environment; shaped by errors we make Rescorla, Robert – Learning; Developed the contingency model of classical conditioning Rogers, Carl (1902-1987) – Treatment of psychological disorders, and personality; Humanistic psychologist- person (client)- centered theraphy and unconditional positive regard; Self theory of personality (individual choice and free will) [see Maslow] Schachter, Stanley – Motivation and emotion; Two-factor theory of emotion (physically aroused, cognitively label arousal) Skinner, B. F. (1904-1990) – behaviourism [see Watson]; rejected introspection; studied learning and effect of reinforcements (consequences, makes a behaviour more likely to occur, encourage or discourage certain responses), operant conditioning Spearman, Charles – found specific mental talents were highly correlated; all cognitive abilities showed common core Sternberg, Robert – Triarchic theory of intelligence (academic problem solving intelligence, practical intelligence, creative intelligence) Terman, Lewis – revised Binet’s IQ test, established norms for American children Titchener, Edward () – structuralism; brought introspection to the US Tolman, Edward – Latent learning; cognitive maps Vygotsky, Lev (1896-1934) – cognitive development; by age 7, children no longer think aloud; they internalize their culture’s language and rely on inner speech; children learn from interactions with other people Washburn, Margaret Floy (1871-1939) – first woman to receive PhD in psychology; animal behavior and motor theory development Watson, John (1878-1958) – studied conditioning experiments [see Pavlov]; Little Albert experiment with Rosalie Rayner (conditioned a little boy to fear a white rate); limit psychology to observable phenomena (≠ unconscious mind); opposed Freud; behaviourism (look at only behaviour and causes of behaviour–stimuli and responses) Whorf, Benjamin – Cognition; the linguistic relativity hypothesis; language determines the way we think AP Psychology Wernicke, Carl – left temporal lobe (language understanding): receptive language; damaged area –uses correct words but they do not make sense Wertheimer, Max (1880-1943) – Gestalt psychologist with Wolfgang Köhler and Kurt Koffka (against dividing human thought and behaviour); examined a person’s total experience and context rather than just his difficulty Wundt, Wilhelm (1832-1920) – first psychological experiment (1879); trained subjects in introspection (record subject’s cognitive reactions to simple stimuli); theory of structuralism (mind operates by combining subjective emotions and objective sensations) Zimbardo, Phillip () – social roles; deindividualization; Stanford prison experiment; role playing affects attitudes AP Psychology History:  Alfred Kinsey (human sexuality)  Mary Whiton Calkins (first female APA president)  Abraham Maslow (hierarchy of needs)  Charles Darwin (evolutionary)  Stanley Schachter (2 factor theory)  Dorothea Dix (first mental asylum)  Hans Selye (General Adaptation Syndrome)  Sigmund Freud (psychoanalytic/dynamic)  G. Stanley Hall (first American PhD, structuralism) Developmental Psychology:  William James (functionalism, introspection)  Mary Ainsworth (attachment, mother & child)  Ivan Pavlov (behaviourism)  Albert Bandura (learning, personality)  Jean Piaget (cognitive)  Diana Baumrind (parenting style)  Carl Rogers (humanist)  Erik Erikson (psychoanalyst, social development)  B. F. Skinner (behaviourism)  Sigmund Freud (psychoanalytic)  Margaret Floy Washburn (first woman PhD)  Carol Gilligan (moral judgment)  John B. Watson (behaviourism)  Harry Harlow (attachment, monkeys)  Wilhelm Wundt (structuralism, introspection, first lab)  Lawrence Kohlberg (moral reasoning)  Konrad Lorenz (ethology, imprinting) Biological bases of behaviour:  Jean Piaget (cognitive development)  Paul Broca (expressive language)  Lev Vygotsky (social development, age 7)  Charles Darwin (evolutionary)  Michael Gazzaniga (cognitive neuroscience) Personality:  Roger Sperry (split-brain theory)  Alfred Adler(humanistic, inferiority complex, birth order)  Carl Wernicke (receptive language)  Albert Bandura (aggression, personality)  Paul Costa & Robert McCrae (NEO Personality Inventory) Sensation and perception:  Sigmund Freud (psychosexual stages, unconscious)  Gustav Fechner (psychophysics)  Carl Jung(personal unconscious, collective unconscious,  David Hubel (neurons in visual cortex, split brain) archetypes, psychoanalytic)  Ernst Weber (just noticeable difference)  Abraham Maslow (humanistic – self-actualization)  Torsten Wiesel (neurons in visual cortex, split brain)  Carl Rogers (humanistic – self-actualization) States of Consciousness: Testing and Individual differences:  William James (theory of consciousness)  Alfred Binet (IQ test)  Sigmund Freud (dream theory)  Francis Galton (IQ determined by head size, etc)  Ernest Hilgard (divided consciousness theory)  Howard Gardner (theory of multiple intelligences)  Charles Spearman (general intelligence) Learning:  Robert Sternberg (triarchic theory of intelligence)  Albert Bandura (observational learning)  Louis Terman (revised IQ test, norms for children)  John Garcia (taste aversion learning)  David Wechsler (adult & children intelligence scale)  Ivan Pavlov (classical conditioning)  Robert Rescorla (elementary learning process) Treatment of Abnormal Behaviour:  B. F. Skinner (operant conditioning)  Aaron Beck (Cognitive therapy for depression)  Edward Thorndike (law of effect)  Albert Ellis (rational emotive therapy)  Sigmund Freud (psychoanalysis)  Edward Tolman (cognitive maps)  John B. Watson (conditioning-Little Albert)  Mary Cover Jones (counterconditioning)  Carl Rogers (humanistic –person-centered therapy) Cognition:  B . F . Skinner (behaviour therapy)  Noam Chomsky (language)  Joseph Wolpe (systematic desensitization)  Hermann Ebbinghaus (forgetting)  Wolfgang Köhler (Gestalt) Social Psychology:  Elizabeth Loftus (eyewitness, constructive memory)  Solomon Asch (conformity)  Leon Festinger (cognitive dissonance)  George A. Miller(7±2)  Stanley Milgram (obedience) Motivation and emotion:  Philip Zimbardo (role playing)  William James (James-Lange theory) AP Psychology History and Approaches Pre-scientific Psychology Socrates, Plato, Descartes:  Believed the mind and body were separate entities (dualism); most ideas, thoughts, traits were inborn (Nature over nurture) Aristotle and Locke:  Believed that the mind and body were connected (monism) and that the mind was a ‘blank slate’ upon which experience writes (Nurture over Nature) Foundations of Modern Psychology Psychology – the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes  Behavioural – experimenting by creating situations that shows a causal relationship; observing the actions  Mental – think and feel  Roots: medicine and philosophy; out of a field called psychophysics Early schools of Psychology  Structuralism – used introspection to explore the elemental structure of human mind. o self-observation and reporting of conscious inner thoughts, desires and sensations o Wilhelm Wundt, Edward Titchener, G. Stanley Hall  Functionalism – how mental and behaviour processes function –enable the organism to adapt, survive, flourish o William James  Gestalt Psychology – studies how people perceive and experience objects as whole patterns; against dividing human thought and behaviour o Max Wertheimer, Kohler, Koffka Nature (innatism/nativism) vs. Nurture (Empiricism/behaviourism) - behaviour results from hereditary or experiences - controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviours  Nature: Socrates, Plato, Descartes  Nurture: Aristotle, Locke, Watson, Skinner, (Wundt, James, Titchener) Stability vs. Change - Do our individual traits change as we age or do they remain fairly stable? Do our traits change in different situations? Rationality vs. Irrationality - Are we in control of our own behaviour? Do we have free will or are we at the mercy of unconscious desires or our environment? AP Psychology Psychological Perspectives Neuroscience/Biopsychology – studies how the brain and other body systems create emotions, memories, and sensory experiences - Genes, hormones, neurotransmitter Evolutionary /behaviour genetics – how natural selection of behaviour traits promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes, reproductive success - Darwin Psychoanalytical (clinical)–both a method of treatment and a theory of the mind - Psychoanalytical – thinking; Psychodynamic – actions - Behaviour reflects combinations of conscious and unconscious influences - Drives/urges within the unconscious component of mind influence thought and behaviour - Early childhood experiences shape unconscious motivations - Sigmund Freud (psychoanalysis), Jung, Adler, Horney, Kohut (psychodynamic psychologists) Humanistic (clinical) – focuses on free will and reaching one’s full human potential - We choose most of our behaviours and these choices are guided by physiological, emotional, or spiritual needs - Focus on conscious forces and self perception - Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers Behavioural /Ethological– study of animal behaviour in the natural environment rather than lab setting - Influenced by Darwin –innate, adaptive behaviour patterns, learned response/trained - Actions, reflexes (ex. manners); change/respond to environment; unconscious, habitual, repetition; do things in response to stimuli; learning as a result of experience - Pavlov (classical conditioning of dogs), Watson (aversive conditioning), Skinner (operant conditioning), Thorndike Cognitive – how is knowledge encode, process, store, and retrieve; used to guide behaviour - Influences: Piaget (intellectual development); Chomsky (language); Cybernetics (science of information processing) Socio-cultural – the study of psychological differences among people living in different cultural groups - How thoughts, feelings, behaviour are influenced by culture - Culture’s rules, social interaction, how cultural differences affects behaviour  Clinical – the study, assessment and treatment of people with mental illnesses  Counselling psychologists – help people to adapt to change or make changes in their lifestyle  Basic research – pure experimental research that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base  Applied research – scientific research that aims to solve practical problems  Psychiatry – branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders  Eclectic – adopt ideas from various perspectives AP Psychology Psychologists Charles Darwin (1809-1882) – Theory of natural selection; inborn knowledge and behaviour; ethology Wilhelm Wundt – first psychology experiment; structuralism Alfred Binet (1857-1911) – intelligence researcher; developed first intelligence test Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) – physiologist; discovered conditioned reflexes; behaviouralism B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) –studied learning and effect of reinforcement; behaviouralism; rejected introspection John Watson (1878-1958) –limit psychology to observable phenomena (≠ unconscious mind); opposed Freud; behaviourism (look at only behaviour and causes of behaviour–stimuli and responses) William James (1842-1910) – functionalism; opposed Wundt and Tichener; wrote first psych textbook Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) – focused on illness; psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) – developed the humanistic approach; individual choice & free will Carl Rogers (1902-1987) – developed the humanistic approach; individual choice & free will J. Piaget – studied intellectual development; cognitive perspective E. Erikson –psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development of human beings Edward Titchener – brought introspection to the US; structuralism Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) – Gestalt psychologist (against dividing human thought and behaviour); examined a person’s total experience and context rather than just his difficulty Mary Whiton Calkins - first woman president of the American Psychological Association and being denied her doctorate from Harvard; memory researcher Dorothea Dix – reformer; first mental asylum; people suffering from mental illness were confined in prisons and were receiving no medical treatment G . Stanley Hall - Became the first President of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1892; first American to get a PhD Margaret Floy Washburn – first woman to earn a PhD AP Psychology Research Methods Basic Research – explores questions of interest, but not intended to have immediate, real-world applications Applied Research – clear, practical applications to solve practical problems Scientific Method Theory – an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations. - Organizing and linking observed facts Hypothesis – a testable prediction often implied by a theory Operational definition – a statement of the procedures used to define research variables. - Set parameter of the experiment Replication – repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. Hindsight bias – the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. - ‘I-knew-it-all-along’ phenomenon Goal of research – to describe, predict, and explain behaviour Research that Describes only Case study – observing one person in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles - Can suggest hypotheses for further study; Individual cases can suggest fruitful ideas Naturalistic observation – observing/recording behaviour w/o trying to manipulate and control the situation Survey – looks at many cases in less depth, asks people to report their behaviour or opinions. - A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviours of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them. - Subtle changes in the order or wording of questions can have major effects Population – all of the people in a particular group from which a sample may be drawn Random sample – a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion Generalizability (external validity) – extent to which results of a study can be applied to the outside world False consensus effect –tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs/behaviours - Ex. vegetarians will think more people are vegetarians than will meat-eaters Social Desirability Bias – tendency of subjects to present themselves in a socially desirable light AP Psychology Research that Describes and Predicts behaviour Correlation –relationship between 2 variables without trying to determine causality or manipulate - Help us predict, restrain the illusions of our flawed intuition. - Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause-effect relationship, but it does not prove causation Positive correlation: 2 sets of scores tend to rise or fall together (ex. height and weight) Negative correlation: two things relate inversely (ex. toothbrushing↑, tooth decay ↓) - A weak correlation, indicating little/no relationship, has a coefficient near 0 Scatterplot – graphed cluster of dots, each which represents the values of two variables Illusory correlation – the perception of a relationship where none exists Confirmation bias – a tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions Overconfidence – the tendency to be more confident than correct; think we know more than we do Research that Describes, Predicts, Explains behaviour True Experiment – Research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variable) in order to observe the effect on some behaviour or mental process (dependent variable) Independent variable – the experimental factor that is manipulated - The variable whose effect is being studied. Dependent variable – the outcome factor - The variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. Operational definitions – specific statements describing how the IV is manipulated, how the DV is measured Random assignment – assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups. Experimental condition – exposes participants to the treatment, one version of the independent variable Control condition – contrasts the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment. Internal validity – the extent to which one can be confident that the manipulation of the IV caused the changes in the DV - When all potential confounding variables have been controlled Confounding variables – something that spoils your design; threatens the experiment’s validity Experimenter bias – a phenomenon that occurs when a researcher’s expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained AP Psychology Demand characteristics – clues participants discover about the purpose of the study that suggest how they should respond. Placebo – a physical/psychological treatment given to the control group that resembles the treatment given to the experimental group, but contains no active ingredient Placebo effect – response to the belief that the independent variable will have an effect, rather than the actual effect of the independent variable, which can be a confounding variable Single-blind – the experimenter is aware of who or what belongs to the control group and the experimental group Double-blind procedure – both research participants and staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the participants have received the treatment of the placebo - Enables researchers to check a treatment’s actual effects apart from the participant’s enthusiasm for it and from the healing power of belief Quasi-experimental design – designs similar to true experiments, but without all of the control techniques (ex. no random assignment) Statistics - field that involves the analysis of numerical data about representative samples of populations Descriptive statistics – numbers that summarize a set of research data obtained from a sample AP Psychology Nominal scale – a set of categories for classifying people or objects (ex gender, eye colour, etc) Ordinal scale –indicating the order/relative position of items/people based on some criterion (ex 1 , 2 ) nd Interval scale – scale with equal distances between points, but with no true 0-point (ex temperature) Ratio scale – scale with equal distances between points and with a true 0-point (ex inches of rainfall, length) Frequency distribution – tabulation of the values that one or more variables take in a sample Central tendency – average or most typical scores of a set of research data or distribution  Mode – most frequently occurring score in a set of research data  Median – the middle score when a set of data is organized by size  Mean – arithmetic average of a set of scores Variability – the spread or dispersion of a set of research data or distribution  Range – the difference between the largest score and the smallest score  Standard Deviation (SD) – measures the avg difference between each score and the mean of the data set; square root of variance  Variance – relate average distance of any score in distribution from the mean Normal distribution –bell-shaped curve that represents data about how lots of human characteristics are dispersed in the population - The mean, median, mode are all equal and divide the distribution in half Percentile score – the percentage of scores at or below a particular score Correlation coefficient (r) – statistical measure of the degree of relatedness or association between 2 sets of data that ranges from -1 to +1 Inferential statistics – statistics that are used to interpret data and draw conclusions Regression to the mean – tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back toward average Statistical significance (p) – the condition that exists when the probability that the observed finding are due to chance is less than 1 in 20 (p <0.5) according to psychologists Ethical guidelines – suggested rules for acting responsibly & morally when conducting research Biological Bases of Behaviour Biological psychology – branch of psychology which studies links between biology and behaviour Neuron – a nerve cell; basic building block on the nervous system  Soma (cell body) – contains nucleus and support systems, DNA  Dendrite – tree-like branches that receive information from other neurons (input)  Axon – neuron's tail; long fibre that passes info to other neurons (output)  Myelin sheath– fatty substance on some axons; speeds up neural transmissions (insulator)  Terminal Branches of Axon – form junctions with other cells and contain synaptic vesicles  Synaptic vesicles – sac-like structures that contain neurotransmitters  Synapse (synaptic gap or cleft) – the tiny gaps between the sending and receiving neurons Neural networks – clusters of neurons that work together and become strengthened with use Neural Communication – neurons communicate via an electrochemical process Electrical Processes Resting potential – neuron is at rest and Polarized; cell’s inside is more negative than surrounding fluid Action potential – a neural impulse; when stimulated at or above threshold, the cell becomes depolarized as positively charged sodium ions rush into the cell. The neuron has now ‘fired’  Threshold – level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse All-or-nothing response – neuron either fires completely or it does not fire; impulse is the same every time th Refractionary Period – for 1/1000 of a second after firing, the cell cannot fire again Chemical Process 1. When the action potential reaches the terminal buttons on the ends of the terminal branches, it causes the synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitters into the synapse 2. The neurotransmitters then bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron 3. After neurotransmitters have done their job, they may be destroyed by other chemicals released into synapse; or reuptake may occur Reuptake – neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the sending neuron and recycled for future use Neurotransmitters – chemicals held in the terminal buttons that travel in the synaptic gap between neurons; some are excitatory (excite the next cell into firing) or inhibitory (inhibit from firing) Neurotransmitter Function Problems associated with an excess / deficit Motor movement Acetylcholine (muscle, learning, memory) Lack -> Alzheimer’s disease Motor movement and alertness Lack -> Parkinson’s disease Dopamine (learning, attention, emotion) Excess -> schizophrenia Mood control Serotonin Lack -> depression (mood, hunger, sleep, arousal) Norepinephrine Control alertness and arousal Lack -> depression Excess -> manic symptoms GABA (gamma- aminobutytic acid) Inhibitory neurotransmitter Lack -> tremors, seizures, insomnia Glutamate Excitatory neurotransmitter Excess -> overstimulate brain (migraines) Endorphins Pain control and pleasure Involved in addictions Drugs and Neurotransmitters Agonists – drugs that are so similar to a neurotransmitter that they can mimic its effects or they may block reuptake of a neurotransmitter Antagonists – drug molecules that inhibit a neurotransmitters release or they may occupy the receptor site on the receiving neuron, blocking neurotransmitter from binding Nervous system –body's electrochemical communication system; contain central and peripheral  Central nervous system – central sensing parts of the body; all nerves within bone o Brain o Spinal cord – bundle of nerves that run through the center of the spine; transmits information from the rest of the body to the brain  Peripheral nervous system – the body's sense receptors, muscles, and glands; all other nerves o Somatic (Skeletal) nervous system – voluntary behaviours; motor cortex sends impulses o Automatic – self regulation of internal organs and glands  sympathetic – arousing – pupils dilate, HR, BP, respiration increase, and digestive processes slow down  parasympathetic – calming – slowing down body after a stress response Nerves – sensory and motor axons carrying peripheral nervous system info bundled into electric cables 3 types of Neurons 1. Sensory (afferent) neurons – of the peripheral NS take incoming sensory information to the spinal cord and brain 2. Motor (efferent) neurons – take information from the spinal cord out to muscles and glands 3. Interneurons – in CNS; communicate with each other, connect the sensory and motor neurons The Simple Reflex Reflex – an automatic response to stimuli done by the spinal cord; does not involve the brain  simple reflex involves afferent (sensory) neurons carrying sensory information to the spinal cord  Interneurons connect the afferent neurons to the efferent (motor) neurons The Brain Phineas Gage – in an accident that damaged the front part of his brain; affected his behaviour and personality; concluded that parts of the brain damaged are involved in emotional control Lesion – brain tissue destruction or removal; can be used for natural or experimental purposes EEG (electroencephalogram) – amplified recordings of brain wave activity CT or CAT (computed tomography scan) – x-ray photos of slices of brain; shows structures, not functions PET (positron emission tomography scan) – visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose is being used while the brain performs certain tasks MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) – uses magnetic fields and radio waves to see structures within brain fMRI (functional MRI) – allows us to see where oxygen is being used in the brain while various tasks are being performed Structure and Function of the Brain Brainstem (reptilian brain) – oldest; hindbrain and midbrain; responsible for automatic survival functions  Hindbrain – top part of the spinal cord; life support system o Medulla – base of brainstem; controls regulatory systems you don’t think about (heartbeat, breathing) o Pons – dreams centre; controls facial expressions o Cerebellum - "little brain"; coordinates voluntary movement; balance; stores learned, implicit memories  Mid-brain – coordinates simple movements with sensory information o Reticular formation – neural network within the brainstem; controls arousal, attention Forebrain – controls what we think of as thought and reason  Thalamus – brain's sensory switchboard; gets messages from reticular formation; relays sensory information to appropriate part of the brain for further processing Limbic system “seat of emotion” –doughnut-shaped structure, deals with emotions, motivated behaviour  Amygdala – passion, anger, fear, emotions  Hippocampus – involved in memory  Hypothalamus “pleasure center”–drives: eating, drinking, sexual behaviour; controls endocrine (hormonal system) via pituitary gland; metabolic functions (body temperature) Cerebrum (Cerebral cortex) – 6 lobes; interconnected neural cells that cover the cerebral hemispheres; ultimate processing and messaging center (Foolish Mothers Smoke POT)  Frontal lobe– conscience, moral choices, reasoned decision-making, rational mind o Motor cortex – movement, gross motor skills (walking, etc.) o Broca’s area – controls ability to speak; left frontal lobe  Parietal lobe – sensory information is stored; bodily sensations (touch) o Sensory cortex – gathering stimuli from environment  Occipital lobe – visual memory is stored; contains Primary visual cortex  Temporal lobe – auditory memory is stored ; contains primary auditory cortex; areas for senses of smell and taste o Wernicke’s Area – control language comprehension and expession Association areas – areas of the cortex not involved in sensory or motor functions; help with higher mental functions (learning, remembering, thinking) Aphasia – impaired use of language – expressive + receptive Angular gyrus – records visual info into audio form; when damaged, can understand & speak, but can't read Left hemisphere – sensory information from the right side of the body; movement of right side; also associated with language, verbal, learning, logical, exact Right hemisphere – sensory information from left side of the body; movement of right side; associated with reading emotions, intuitive, social understanding, music, artistic ability, spatial skills Corpus callosum – axon fibers connecting both hemispheres; carries messages between brains;  Spit brains –2 hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting corpus callosum between them o Left – verbal, mathematical, analytical o Right – spatial, musical, holistic functions (identifying faces, facial expressions) Endocrine system – controlled by hypothalamus; gland system that secrets hormones into bloodstream  Pituitary gland –controls height; releases growth hormones  Thyroid – affects metabolism  Parathyroids – regulate calcium levels in the blood  Adrenal glands –release epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline); both increase arousal; ‘fight or flight’ response  Pancreas – regulates glucose levels in the blood through the release of insulin  Ovaries and testes – secrete female and male sex hormones  Pineal – produce serotonin Nature-nurture controversy—the extent to which heredity & environment each influence behavior. Evolutionary psychologists—study how Darwin’s theory of natural selection favored behaviors that contributed to survival and spread of our ancestors’ genes; look at universal behaviors shared by all people. Behavioral geneticists—study the role of our genes and our environment in mental ability, emotional stability, temperament, personality, interests, etc.; look at the causes of our individual differences. Zygote—fertilized egg. Heritability—the proportion of variation among individuals in a population that is due to genetic causes. Studies of twins help separate the contributions of heredity and environment.  Identical twins—monozygotic twins; share all of the same genes/heredity  Fraternal twins—dizygotic twins; share about half of the same genes  When twins grow up in the same environment, the extent to which behaviors of monozygotic twins are behaviorally more similar than dizygotic twins reveals the contribution of heredity to behavior.  If monozygotic twins are separated at birth and raised in different environments (adoption studies), behavioral differences = environment to behavior; similarities = heredity.  In adoption studies, if the children resemble their biological parents, but not their adoptive families, with respect to a given trait, researchers infer a genetic component for that trait. Gene—each DNA segment of a chromosome that determines a trait. Chromosome—structure in the nucleus of cells that contains genes determined by DNA sequences.  Human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes: 23 from sperm, 23 from egg at fertilization.  XY – male; XX – female Errors during fertilization can result in the wrong number of chromosomes in cells of a baby. • Turner’s syndrome—females with only one X sex chromosome who are short, often sterile, and have difficulty calculating. • Klinefelter’s syndrome—males with XXY sex chromosomes. • Down syndrome—usually with three copies of chromosome-21 in their cells, individuals who are typically mentally retarded and have a round head, flat nasal bridge, protruding tongue, small round ears, a fold in the eyelid, and poor muscle tone and coordination. • Genotype—the genetic make-up of an individual. • Phenotype—the expression of the genes. • Homozygous—the condition when both genes for a trait are the same. • Heterozygous—also called hybrid, the condition when the genes for a trait are different. • Dominant gene—gene expressed when the genes for a trait are different. • Recessive gene—hidden or not expressed when the genes for a trait are different. • Tay-Sachs syndrome—recessive trait that produces progressive loss of nervous function and death in a baby. • Albinism—recessive trait that produces lack of pigment and involves quivering eyes and inability to perceive depth with both eyes. • Phenylketonuria (PKU)—recessive trait that results in severe, irreversible brain damage unless the baby is fed a special diet low in phenylalanine. • Huntington’s disease—dominant gene defect that involves degeneration of the nervous system, characterized by tremors, jerky motions, blindness, and death. • Sex-linked traits—recessive genes located on the X chromosome with no corresponding gene on the Y chromosome, which result in expression of recessive trait, more frequently in males. • Color blindness—sex-linked trait; individual cannot see certain colors (often red/ green) Psychologists: Paul Broca –left frontal lobe (muscle movement involved in speech): associated with expressive language; damaged area –speech that makes sense, difficulty speaking Charles Darwin – evolutionary; theory of natural selection Michael Gazzaniga – cognitive neuroscience; split-brain Roger Sperry – split-brain theory Carl Wernicke – left temporal lobe (language understanding): receptive language; damaged area –uses correct words but they do not make sense Sensation and Perception  Sensation – the process by which you detect physical energy from your environment and encode it as neural signals; activation of senses  Perception – the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information; influenced by your memory, motivation, emotion, and even culture; understanding these sensations Bottom-up Processing – analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain’s processing of information; takes longer, more accurate Top-down Processing – information processing guided by higher-level processes (expectations & experiences) Psychophysics – the study of the relationship between physical energy and psychological experiences; asks questions about our sensitivity to stimuli. (ex. Light-brightness; sound-volume; pressure-weight) Absolute threshold – the minimum stimulation needed to detect ONE stimulus 50% of the time Signal detection theory – theory that our ability to DETECT absolute thresholds and SIGNALS changes based on our level of experience, focus, motivation, and fatigue Subliminal Stimulation – stimulation below one’s threshold of conscious awareness (ex. advertising) Difference threshold – the minimum difference required to tell the difference between two stimuli 50% of the time; also called 'just noticeable difference'  Weber's law – difference threshold requires a constant proportion, not a constant number o (ex. A candy bar increases by $2, you won't buy it. A car increases by $2, you'll still buy it) Sensory Adaptation – our diminishing sensitivity to unchanging stimuli (ex. Band-aid) Selective attention – the focusing of conscious awareness on specific stimuli, ignoring other stimuli  Cocktail effect – focusing in on one voice among many, like when at a cocktail party Inattentional blindness – inability to see an object/person amidst an engrossing scene Change blindness – when subjects focused on one thing don't notice something change in their environment Transduction – TRANSLATING sensory information (stimulus energies –sound waves, light waves) into neural impulses (ex. TRANSLATING the image of a DUCK into the neural message for DUCK)  Phototransduction – conversion of light energy into neural impulses that brain can understand Vision and Light Energy Wavelength – distance from peak to peak of light/sound waves; determines hue (vision) or pitch (auditory)  Hue (colour) – determined by light wavelength; long = red, short = blue Amplitude – height of a light/sound wave; determines brightness (vision) and loudness (hearing)  Intensity – brightness; amount of energy in light waves; determined by wave's amplitude (height) Light -> cornea -> pupil (iris) -> lens -> retina -> (photoreceptors –rods & cones) -> optic nerve -> (bipolar cells -> ganglion cells) -> thalamus -> visual cortex  Cornea – where light first enters the eye; protects eye; bends light to start focusing  Pupil – 2nd stage; light passes through this adjustable opening; amount coming in controlled by iris o Iris – the colour muscle that controls pupil size and amount of light coming in  Lens – 3rd stage; takes light from pupil, accommodates it (change shape), and focuses it on retina o Acuity – sharpness of vision; affected by distortions in lens shape  Nearsightedness – nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects  Farsightedness – faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects  Retina – contains sensory receptors that process visual information and send it to the brain o light sensitive inner surface of eye; contains rods and cones (receptor cells) and layers of other neurons (bipolar, ganglion cells) that process visual information o Fovea – the retina's central area of focus; cones cluster in the center here Photoreceptors: o Rods – peripheral receptors on the retina; sensitive to dim light o Cones – Centered receptors on the retina; sensitive to color and detail  Optic nerve – nerve that carries neural impulses from eye to brain o Bipolar cells – receive messages from photoreceptors--> ganglion cells; form optic nerve o Ganglion cells –receives messages from bipolar cells; axons of these cells form optic nerve o Optic nerves connect to the thalamus in the middle of the brain Blind spot – where the optic nerve leaves the eye; no receptor cells are in this SPOT Feature Detectors – nerve cells in visual cortex respond to specific features (shape, angle, movement) Parallel processing – ability of brain to process several aspect of a situation simultaneously Colour vision Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic theory – (3-color theory); theory that retina has 3 types of cones -red, green, and blue receptors; which when stimulated in combination can produce any colour - Doesn’t explain afterimage or colour blindness Opponent-process theory – theory that opposing retinal processes (red-Green, yellow-Blue, white-Black) enable color vision; to see a color, some cells are stimulated while others are turned off; explains afterimage  Color constancy – perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even when light changes how the object looks (context changes) Audition – sense of hearing Acoustical transduction – conversion of sound waves into neural impulses in the hair cells of the inner ear Frequency – wavelength; determines pitch; long = low pitch Amplitude – height of wavelength; determines loudness (intensity) Sound localization – sound waves strike one ear sooner and with more intensity than other ear; brain can determine location of sound Pinna -> auditory canal -> eardrum -> middle ear -> (hammer, anvil, stirrup) -> inner ear cochlea -> (basilar membrane -> hair cells) -> auditory nerves -> thalamus -> temporal lobe  Outer ear: Pinna –collects sounds; Auditory canal – channels sound waves to eardrum  Eardrum –tight membrane that vibrates with sounds from the auditory canal; sends vibrations along  Middle ear – between eardrum and cochlea; 3 tiny bones (ossicles) - hammer, anvil, and stirrup o Hammer, anvil, stirrup –sends vibrations from middle ear to inner ear cochlea  Inner ear –contains cochlea, semicircular canals, vestibular sacs o Cochlea – coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube that transduces sound vibrations to auditory signals  Basilar membrane –inner ear cochlea; contains hair cells (receptor cells for sound)  Hair cells – inner ear basilar membrane; axons form the auditory nerves Theories of Audition Place theory – Hermann von Helmholtz's theory that we hear difference pitches because sound waves hit different PLACES on the basilar membrane; explains high-pitched sounds Frequency theory – the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling the auditory nerve matches the FREQUENCY of a pitch; explains low-pitched sounds (because high pitches are too fast)  Volley principle – neural cells alternate firing so that they achieve a combined frequency that goes much higher than what they could do on their own Deafness Conduction Deafness –caused by damage to structures which conduct sound waves through the ear Sensorineural hearing loss (nerve deafness) –when you listen to loud music too much and cochlea’s hair cells break off and die; damage to hair cells/auditory nerve Cochlear implants – electronic devices that enable brain to hear sounds Touch (Tactile sense) Skin senses – warmth, cold, pressure, and pain  Only pressure has identifiable sense receptors  Cold + pressure = wetness Cold +warmth = hot Pain - Controlled by therapies including drugs, surgery, acupuncture, exercise, hypnosis, distraction  Melzak and Wall’s Gate-control theory –spinal cord has gates that either block pain signals or let them pass to the brain; gates open when pain > thinking, gates are closed when thinking > pain Taste (Gustatory sense -chemical sense) Basic tastes – sweet, sour, bitter, salty, (umami –meaty taste)  Taste buds – located on papillae –bumps on your tongue  Each bud has a pore that captures food molecules o molecules cause hair-like neurons within pore to fire Sensory interaction – one sense may be influenced by another; (ex. Smell of food influence taste) Smell (Olfactory sense –chemical sense)  We can detect over 10,000 different odors  Smells are processed in temporal lobes and in the limbic system o why certain smells have emotional component and can trigger memories  molecules in the air reach millions of receptor cells in each nasal cavity o these cells send messages to the olfactory bulb and the olfactory nerves Body position and Movement Kinesthesis – our sense of our body's position and movement  receptor cells are found in muscles, tendons, joints Vestibular sense – sense of balance; monitors the head's position and movement  controlled by semicircular canals and vestibular sacs in the inner ear Perceptual Organization Figure-ground relationship – ability to perceive any object (figure) as distinct from its surroundings (ground) Visual capture –tendency for vision to dominate the other senses when conflicting information is received Gestalt Organizational Principles– an organized whole; these psychologists emphasize our tendency to think pieces are part of a whole; bring order and form to basic visual sensations  Grouping –5 rules for putting certain stimuli together 1. Proximity – putting nearby objects in groups 2. Similarity – putting similar colour/shapes in the same group 3. Continuity –perceive continuous patterns instead of discontinuous ones 4. Connectedness – when uniform and linked, perceive spots or lines as a single units 5. Closure – fill gaps to create a whole Depth perception – ability to perceive two-dimensional retina images as 3-dimensional; allows us to PERCEIVE depth and distance Visual cliff – laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants Binocular cues – depth cues that require both eyes 1. Retinal disparity –by comparing images from both eyes, brain computes distance; the greater the distance between objects, the closer the object (ex. Finger sausage) 2. Convergence –how much the eyes converge inward when looking at an object; greater the convergence, the closer the object Monocular cues – distance cues that require one eye 1. Relative size – smaller images are far away, big images are closer 2. Interposition (overlap)– if one object blocks another, partially blocked object is farther away 3. Relative clarity – hazy objects are perceived as farther away than clear, distinct objects 4. Texture gradient –finer textures signals increasing distance 5. Relative height –objects higher in our field of vision are farther away 6. Linear perspective –parallel lines to appear to converge in the distance (ex. Railroad tracks) 7. Light and shadow – nearby objects reflect more light, seem closer; dimmer ones seem further away 8. Relative motion (motion parallax) –when you're riding in a car, closer objects appear to move faster than far away objects; objects behind fixation point appear to be moving with you, farther away the object is form the fixation point, the more slowly it appears to move Closer: bigger, not blocked, clear, coarse, shorter, parallel, brighter, move faster Farther: smaller, partially blocked, hazy, fine, higher, converging, dimmer, move slower Motion Perception  Object getting bigger, moving toward us; object getting smaller, moving away from us Phi phenomenon – series of lightbulbs turned on/off at a particular rate will appear to be 1 moving light Stroboscopic movement – brain interprets rapid series of slightly varying images as continuous movement (ex. Flip books, movies) Perceptual constancy – our ability to perceive objects as the same color and size, even when our retinal images of them change  Shape constancy – we perceive the form of familiar objects as constant even when our retinal images of them change  Size constancy – we perceive familiar objects to maintain a constant size even when their distance from us changes  Lightness constancy – we perceive an object as having a constant lightness even when its illumination varies Sensory Deprivation  People blind from birth, who later have their vision restored, can distinguish figure-ground relationships, sense colours, but have difficulty recognizing objects that they were familiar by touch Perceptual adaptation – (vision) ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field Perceptual set – mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another; our learned assumptions and beliefs; judging based on experience; determined by schemas  Schema – used to organize and interpret unfamiliar information; top-down processing; analyzing how things are alike and if they fit into our concept of things Human factors psychology – a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact; how machines can be altered and made easier to use for humans (ex. ATM machines) Extrasensory Perception (ESP) – claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input Telepathy – communication from one mind to another without using senses (mind-to-mind) Clairvoyance – knowledge about a place/object without ever witnessing it (perception of remote events) Precognition – telling the future (perception of future events) Telekinesis/psychokinesis – ability to affect objects with the power of the mind (moving remote objects through mental processes) Parapsychologists – study paranormal occurrences, claims of ESP Psychologists Gustav Fechner – psychophysics; relative increase in mental intensity = relative increase in physical energy required to bring it about Ernst Weber – just noticeable differences; the minimum difference required to tell the difference between two stimuli 50% of the time David Hubel & Torsten Wiesel - Discovered feature detectors, groups of neurons in the visual cortex that respond to different types of visual stimuli States of Consciousness Consciousness – our awareness of ourselves and the outside world/environment Unconsciousness – loss of responsiveness to the environment from disease, trauma, anaesthesia Attention – state of focused awareness Biological rhythms – periodic physiological fluctuations (ex. 28 days menstrual cycle; geese migration) Circadian rhythm –biological clock (hypothalamus); regular body rhythms that occur on a 24hr cycle (ex. temperature, sleep) States of Consciousness: consciousness, daydreaming, sleep, hypnosis, meditation, drug-induced states Level of Consciousness Conscious level information about yourself and your environment Nonconscious level body processes inaccessible to conscious awareness (ex. blood flow, heartbeat, etc) Preconscious level outside of awareness, but contains feelings & memories that you can easily bring into conscious awareness. (ex. favourite toy as child – preconscious memory) Subconscious level information that we are not consciously aware of but we know must exist due to behaviour; priming and mere-exposure effect Unconscious level unacceptable feelings, thoughts to our conscious mind, repressed into unconscious mind Stages of Sleep Stage 1 – Alpha waves; hypnogogic hallucinations; sleep talking; hypnic jerk; slow down of biological functions (ex. blood pressure, heart rate, respiration) and a decrease in temperature Stage 2 – Waves are slower (some theta waves); sleep spindles; K-complexes; sleep talking; biological functions continue to slow Stage 3 – Transition stage. See first signs of delta waves; biological functions continue to slow Stage 4 – Deep sleep. All delta waves; bedwetting and sleep walking; Biological functions at their lowest REM sleep – rapid eye movement sleep; vivid dreams; erection in males; paralysis; paradoxical sleep (biological function & brain waves appear more like an awake person); muscles are relaxed, but body active NREM/Non-REM sleep – Stage 1-4, rapid eye movements do not occur After stage 4, sleeper moves back to stages 3, 2, then into REM sleep (cycle 4-7 times during the night) Full sleep-cycle=90 mins. As cycles continue throughout the night, stage 4 gets shorter, REM sleep longer Sleep – combination of states -own level of consciousness, awareness, responsiveness, physiological arousal Sleep onset – period when we are falling asleep (between wakefulness and sleep) Hypnagogic state – semiwakeful state of dreamlike awareness Electroencephalograms (EEGs) – reveals brain waves change in form systematically through sleep cycle  Recorded with electrodes on the skull’s surface Alpha waves – little, slow brain waves of relaxed, Awake state Delta waves – large, slow brain waves associated with Deep sleep Hallucinations – false sensory experiences that occur without sensory stimulus; usually happen in Stage 1 sleep (ex. Feeling of falling, feeling of floating) Sleep theories  Possibly certain chemicals depleted during the day are restored during sleep  A build-up of ‘s-factor’ during the day causes sleep at night  Pituitary gland more active during deep sleep. Sleep may be involved in growth process  Evolutionary view: sleeping when it was dark kept us safe Dream Theories Dream – sequence of images, emotions, thoughts in the mind of sleeping person; contain hallucinatory imagery, incongruities; hard to remember; occur during REM sleep Lucid dreaming – ability to be aware of and direct one’s dreams 1. Freudian Theory – Dreams help disguise unconscious conflicts and motives  Manifest content – according to Freud, the remembered dream CONTENT (actual events)  Latent content – according to Freud, the hidden meaning of a dream (underlying symbolism) 2. Activation-synthesis theory – during REM sleep the brainstem stimulates the forebrain with random neural activity, interpret as dream – pons; senses still work 3. Cognitive information processing theory – dreams are the interplay of brain waves and psychological functioning of interpretive parts of the mind  Daydreaming – state with focus on inner, private realities, generate creative ideas  Hypnosis – state with deep relaxation, heightened suggestibility Memory Consolidation Theory – the parts of the brain active when we learn something similarly active later when we sleep and dream; what brain wants to keep (memory) Brain-Stimulation theory – periodic stimulation during dreaming helps form neural connections. - Brain absorbs info, makes sense of it REM rebound – the tendency for REM sleep to increase after REM deprivation Sleep disorders Insomnia – reoccurring problems in falling or staying asleep Narcolepsy –characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks; patient lapses directly into REM sleep Sleep apnea – a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and waking up because of it Night terrors – a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and terrified appearance; unlike nightmares, they occur in Stage 4 sleep; not remembered Nonsomnia – don’t need sleep Hypnosis Hypnosis – a social interaction in which one person (hypnotist) suggests to another person (subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviours will spontaneously occur  Does not improve memory; contaminate our memories  Relieves pain – dissociation; aware of pain, conscious part of person is not  Dissociation – a split in consciousness that dissociates thoughts that usually go together; separating emotion from pain (ex. Sticking hand into water that feels very cold, but doesn't hurt)  People who are highly suggestive Posthypnotic amnesia – supposed inability to recall of what happened during hypnosis; caused by the hypnotist's suggestion; don’t know you are being hypnotized Posthypnotic suggestion – a suggestion made during hypnosis that is supposed to work after hypnosis ends; used to control undesirable symptoms and behaviours  Ex. eat less, quit smoking, feel less anxious, etc. Theories of Hypnosis  Divided consciousness theory – Hilgard’s theory that dissociation occurs during hypnosis; split in consciousness; part of person is unaware, part is aware called hidden observer  Hidden observer – Hilgard's term describing a hypnotized subject's slight awareness of pain or movement they experienced during hypnosis  Social influence theory – theory that hypnotic subjects are just role-playing; so caught up in hypnotized role that they convince themselves it's real; trying to be a "good subject"; imaginative acting Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive drug – chemical drug that alters perceptions and mood Tolerance – the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug; user must take larger amounts to experience same effect -> Addiction -> withdrawl Withdrawal – the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing drug use Physical dependence – physiological need for a drug; unpleasant withdrawal symptoms Psychological dependence – psychological need for a drug (to relieve sad/angry, -ve emotions) Psychoactive Drugs Depressants – slow neural activity and body functions; induce sleep (ex. Alcohol, barbiturates, opiates) - Reduce activity of CNS, relaxation  Barbituates – tranquilizers (Valium, Xanax); drugs that depress central nervous system; thus reducing anxiety by impairing judgments, prescriptive meds  Opiates – opium and its derivatives; depress neural activity; lessen pain (numb) and anxiety; allow you to OPT out of PAIN (ex. Morphine, codeine, opium, heroin) Narotics – depress the CNS, relieve pain, induce feelings of euphoria Stimulants – activate neural activity and speed up body functions (ex. Caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine); reduce activity in inhibitory centers of the CNS  Amphetamines – drugs that stimulate neural activity; speed-up body functions and energy  Ecstasy (MDMA) – synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen; produces euphoria, intimacy; harms serotonin neurons and cognition  Reuptake –natural process of a sending neuron reabsorbing excess n.t.; cocaine blocks this Hallucinogens – distort perceptions; evoke false sensory images -hallucinations (ex. LSD, marijuana)  LSD – lysergic acid diethylamide; acid; powerful hallucinogenic drug  THC – delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol; active ingredient in marijuana; triggers mild hallucinations Near-death experience – an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death; similar to drug-induced hallucinations Monism – the idea that mind & body are different parts of the same thing; no separation Dualism – the idea that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact; believe in separate body and a soul; when body dies, mind may continue to exist Psychologists: William James – theory of consciousness Sigmund Freud – Dream theory: help disguise unconscious conflicts and motives Ernest Hilgard – Divided consciousness theory Carl Jung – Collective unconscious; fears; same kind of dreams (latent) in all humans, but different manifest Learning/Behaviourism  Learning – relatively permanent change in an organism's behaviour due to experience  Behaviourism – view that psychology should be an objective science  Associative learning – learning that certain events (two stimuli & response in classical/ consequences in operant conditioning) occur together Classical conditioning – learning where an organism comes to associate stimuli, a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus; Stimulus-response relationship; autonomic NS; repetition  Unconditioned response (UR) –unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus  Unconditioned stimulus (US) – a stimulus that unconditionally/automatically triggers a response  Conditioned response (CR) –learned response to a previously neutral (now conditioned) stimulus (CS)  Conditioned stimulus (CS) – an originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US) comes to trigger a conditioned response  Acquisition – initial stage of classical conditioning - associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response  Extinction – diminishing of conditioned response - when an unconditional stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS)  Spontaneous recovery – reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response  Generalization – tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli to the conditioned stimulus to elicit a similar response  Discrimination – ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditional stimulus Operant conditioning –behaviour is strengthened by a reinforcer or diminished by punisher  Respondent behaviour – behaviour that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus  Operant behaviour – behaviour that operates on the environment, producing consequences  Law of effect – Thorndike's principle that behaviours followed by a favourable consequences become more likely and that behaviours followed by unfavourable consequences become less likely  Operant chamber –Skinner box containing a bar/key animals can manipulate to obtain a reinforcer  Shaping– reinforcers guide behaviour toward closer & closer approximations of the desired behaviour Reinforcer – consequence that strengthens/increases the likelihood of the behaviour o Positive reinforcement – adds something positive (ex. give a present) o Negative reinforcement – removes something unpleasant (ex. Excuse from chores)  Primary reinforcer – innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies biological need  Secondary (Conditioned) reinforcer – stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer Schedules of reinforcement  Continuous reinforcement – reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs  Partial (intermittent) reinforcement–reinforcing a response only part of the time - slower acquisition of a response but greater resistance to extinction o Fixed-ratio schedule– reinforcement after a specific number of responses o Variable-ratio schedule – reinforcement after an unpredictable number of responses o Fixed-interval schedule – reinforcement after a specified time it has elapsed o Variable-interval schedule – reinforcement at unpredictable time intervals Punishment – a consequence that decreases the likelihood of the behaviour  Positive punishment – adds something negative (ex. Give more chores)  Negative punishment – removes something pleasant (ex. Take away cell phone) A B C’s of Behaviourism: Antecedent; Behaviour; Consequence Cognition & Operant Conditioning  Cognitive map – a mental representation of the layout of one's environment  Latent learning – learning occurs but is not apparent, until there is an incentive to demonstrate it  Overjustification effect – the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do  Intrinsic motivation – a desire to perform a behaviour for its own sake  Extrinsic motivation – desire to perform a behaviour due to promised rewards or threats of punishment Observational learning – learning by observing the behaviour of others (ex Bobo dolls)  Modeling – the process of observing and imitating a specific behaviour  Prosocial behaviour – positive, constructive, helpful be
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