Psych 100 Review Notes

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 100
Catherine Rawn

17/10/11 Midterm on 24/10/11 – Chapter 2 and Chapter 6 Classical Conditioning Operant conditioning - Classical conditioning o Ivan Pavlov o Why do we learn by classical conditioning? : Recognize stimuli that predict important events – eg things that can hurt us, summer, etc,  Functional o Make appropriate response quickly and effectively o Stimuli that used to be unimportant can now modify behaviour (EG click) o Behaviorism  The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without making reference to mental processes  Early behaviorism  Learned behaviors can be reduced to mindless mechanisms  Extending Pavlov’s understanding: cognitive processes  Animals learn an expectancy for the unconditioned stimulus o EG: fear conditioning  Unconditional response does not have to always equal to conditioned response o Tells us that it is not a simple reflex, there is an expectation of what is going to happen – expectation that leads to the response – not always an automatic reflex  Animals learn an expectancy for the unconditioned stimulus  Biological predispositions o Learn quickly about what is going to kill us o Humans can easily develop classically conditioned nausea  Applications of classical conditioning o Advertisers use classical conditioning principles to make us feel good about their products o EG nail biting with the nail polish for nail biting  Alcoholics maybe conditioned with aversive experiences to reverse positive associations with alcohol  Drug that affects the immune response may cause the taste of the drug to invoke an immune response  UCS – unconditioned stimulus  UCR – unconditioned response  CS – conditioned stimulus  CR – conditioned response - Operant conditioning o Associative learning  Conditinoned stimulus with unconditioned stimulus  My behaviours and consequences of my behaviors  Automatic response to certain stimulus  Operate on environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli o Thorndike’s law of effect  Concequences of behavour determine whether it is repearted (if rewarded will do again, if punished will not do again) o Burrhus Frederick Skinner  Expanded thorndike’s work  ‘skinner box’  Operant conditioning: X happens – the last time X happened, I did t Y and Z happened  I like Z so do Y again  X = discriminative stimulus  Y= operant response  Z = Positive reinforcement/ negative reinforcement (punishment)  EG: Phone beep – last time phone beeped checked it and msg from greg, msg make me  so I check again, visa versa o Events that strangthen the response  Positive reinforcement/negative o Events that weaken response  Punishment/extinction o Renforcers  Positive: strengthen response, ad
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