Psych Ch.9 Language

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PSYC 101
Bobby Fokidis

Ch.9 Language Language- spoken, written, or gestured “signals” and the way we combine them together to communicate meaning (semantic value) Phonemes- smallest basic distinctive sound unit (i.e. “chug” has 3 phonemes- ch, u, g) Phonological rules- a set of rules that indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds (i.e. “ts” is used in German, but not in English. If it was, we consider it to sound odd, like speaking with an accent) Morphemes- smallest unit that carries meaning Morphological rules- indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words Content morphemes refer to things and events (i.e. cat, dog, take) Function morphemes serve grammatical functions, such as tying sentences together (i.e. and, or, but) or indicating time (i.e. when) Free morphemes- can be independent word (i.e. town, horse, class, capital, garbage) Bound morphemes- part of word (prefix, suffix) (i.e. un-, -s, -ish, -ness) Semantics-rules by which we derive meaning in a language (i.e. adding “ed” at the end of words means past tense) - The Chinese language does not have expansive semantic rules, instead often have totally different symbols for different tenses Syntax- the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences In English, adjectives come before nouns, but not in Spanish. Deep structure- meaning of a sentence Surface structure- how a sentence is worded (i.e. “dog chased the cat” or “cat chased by the dog”) - Sentences can have the same meaning but different surface structure - To generate a sentence, begin with a deep structure to create a surface structure - To comprehend a sentence, you do the reverse, processing the surface structure in order to extract the deep structure. After the deep structure is extracted, the surface structure is usually forgotten. - Children learn language at astonishingly rapid rate (1 y/o- 10 words, 4 y/o- 10,000 words) - They learn about 6-7 words each day - Make few errors while learning to speak - Passive mastery develops faster than active mastery (understand better than they speak) Fast mapping- children map
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