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psych 101 midterm 2

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PSYC 101
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PSYC 101Midterm 2 Notes Chapters 4 5 6CHAPTER 4 The Biology of Behaviourthe brain and its componentstakes in information processing and storing information about environmentmakes decisions controls behaviourregulates bodys physiological processesneural plasticity changes with experience neurogenesis does happen at least in the subventricular zone for olfaction and the subgranular zone for hippocampuscan be stimulated by the environment new odours or learning tasksduring development founder stem cells divide symmetrically and then asymmetrically and then undergo apoptosiscommunication within happens via nerves bundles of fibres organized into modulessend info in both directionsall are connected to brain or spinal cordcontains 10100 billion neuronstypessensory take info from receptors to CNSmotor take info from CNS to muscles and glandsinterneurons have two functionsconnect two other neuronscommunicate between brain neuronsmaintain brain structureassisted by gliahold neurons in placeguide movement of developing neuronsproduce necessary chemicalstake up bad chemicalsform protective sheaths around nerve fibresrole in immune system attacking microorganismsanatomydendritecan accept other axons TBs on dendritic spine or directlycell body or soma metabolism and maintenance functionsmakes up majority of grey matteraxonhas a myelin sheath which insulates and prevents tangled action potentials fattyprotein tissue layer lots in white matterbreaks down in multiple sclerosis which is an autoimmune diseasecauses muscle coordination breakdown and then dementiaattacks a protein in myelin sheath in CNSeach sausage is a separate neuronincreases speedAPs can jump decreases axon lengthincreases circumference SA of terminalterminal buttonscan land anywhere including on another axonsynapses can be excitatory generally opening Na channels or inhibitory generally allowing K out with regard to their effect on the likelihood of the postsynaptic neuron to firein myasthenia gravis immune system destroys receptor proteins in muscle cellscommunicate via action potentialsbrief electric charge that travels down axonmechanismneurons are negatively charged resting potential70 mV due to unequal particle distributionreversal of charge opens ion transportersion channels and transporters which are more selective and require more energy pump K in and Na outNa channels open leading to Na electrochemical diffusion and reversal of potential Na channels close and K channels open to restore potential 2 Na3 K pump restores original locationsdepolarization to 40 mV repolarization overshoots refractory period where cell cannot firehas a crucial threshold around 55 mVallornone law quantitative messages depend on rate of firingincludes gyri and fissures peaks and valleys in wrinkled cortexincrease SAV ratioless pronounced in primatesevolution correlated with encephalization and wrinklingsend commandsbloodbrain barrier lack of openings in capillariesdoes not exist at vomiting part of brainmajor partsbrain stemmaintains physiologyresponsible for automatic behaviours eg breathing reptilian braincerebellum Sarah poking watch smile remembering smooth running motionsresponsibilitiesdiscrimination between stimulitime perceptionemotional regulationimplicit learningmotor control coordinationespecially balance and online adjustmentsfinetuning movements as they happenname Latin little braincerebral hemispheresresponsible for higher level activitiesdivided into hemispheres
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