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psych 101 final exam notes.doc

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 101

PSYC 101FinalMidterm 3 NotesCHAPTER 7 Learning and Behaviourlearningadaptive process in which tendency to perform a particular behaviour is changed by experienceperformancebehavioural change resulting unreliable measurenot the only factor that changes behaviourlearning can happen without observable changes in behaviourhabituationsimplest ubiquitous type of learningevery living organism as far as we knowlearning adaptive process in which the tendency to perform a particular behaviour is altered by experiencemore behaviour focused than memory which is informationfocusednonassociativerelates to single isolated stimuliinverse of orienting response ORdirection of appropriate sense organ toward source of novel stimulilearning not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedlyvery stimulusspecificwith C elegans changing stimulus from tapping to heat gives new ORtypes of stimulisimple or complex complex draw attention for novelty but can still be habituated eg commercialsmassed or spacedmassed facilitates shortterm habituation trains coming every hourspaced facilitates longterm habituation trains coming every daylongterm habituation also lasts longer shrinking old synapses whereas shortterm might just consist of changed neural firing ratesshorttermsimplest form common in snails and simple animalstakes just as long for habituation to occur a second timeconscious thought would probably influence shortterm habituation more than longtermclassical conditioning CCPavlovs discoveryWWI era in Russia came to work during Russian Revolutionstudying digestion esp salivation harnessed dogs and presented with meat powdernoticed dogs salivating at sight of research assistants termed psychic secretionstook new naive dogs and started testing with bell before meat powderfindingsCC acquired when bell preceded meat powder couldnt go backward makes biological sense for a warning signaldelay couldnt be too long during conditioning timing can distinguish CR from UCR CR occurs firstoptimally CR peaks around time of UCSBefore conditioningConditioningAfter conditioningUCSUCR natural and UCSUCRUCSUCRautomaticCSorienting response aloneCSUCSCSCRUCRbiological significanceprediction allows faster more effective appropriate responses esp when CR peaks around time of UCSwasp buzzing noise CS and sting UCSseeing rival CS causes increased heart rate CRsweet tastes CScalories UCS cause you to stop eating UCRpreviously unimportant stimuli acquire behaviourmodifying properties of important stimulieg moneyCSwealthy people CS become interesting because money is interesting CS to something elseeg aquarium fish start flirting with red light when associated with females entranceeg pigeons pecking the light for grain rats touching light bulb for alcoholeven shown in nematodesworms migrated towards ions that had been associated with bacterial foodbasic principlesacquisition usually takes more than a single pairing exceptiontaste aversion period of repeated pairings in which CR appears and increases in frequencyfaster when UCS is more intensefaster when CS and UCS overlapterminate simultaneously CS precedes by 05 sextinction occurs when CS presented repeatedly without UCS decreasing likelihood of CRdoes not occur if neither UCS nor CS is presentedspontaneous recovery occurs after extinction to 0 CR and a period of no stimulindhowever CRis a bit lower and 2 extinction period is shortersimilar purposeful acquisition is faster after extinctiongeneralization can occur with stimuli similar to CSlikelihoodsimilarityhowever you can teach an animal that only one CS is important discrimination by showing a CS without UCS and a CS with UCSstrength of CR as percentage for a person based on intensity of UCSCC is most effective when CS is only presented prior to UCSreliability of CS in predicting UCS is the key factor in CCtest this with blocking experimentseg adding foodpredicting light to foodpredicting tonetrained dogs test light alone and tone alonetone works light doesnttraining with tone blocks light trainingcontrol light and tone learned at same time either along with produce halfstrength CRits very difficult to condition redundant cueseg scary music in horror movies CS and frightening scenes UCSwhat behaviour does CS predictNot always UCR exactly sometimes it produces something associated with a UCReg fighting fish become submissive at foodpredicting tone which has been conditioned away from dominant fisheg femalesatiated birds showed weaker CR when presented with femaleassociated
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