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PSYCH 101 Final Notes (Chapters 1-7).pdf

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PSYC 101
Karen Smith

Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology 1. Summarize Wundt’s accomplishments and contributions to psychology. • Aimed to make psychology an independent discipline • Established 1 formal laboratory for research in psychology at the University of Leipzig st • Established 1 journal devoted to publishing research on psychology • Focus was psychology being the scientific study of conscious experience • Had many students that fanned across Germany and North America 2. Summarize Hall’s accomplishments and contributions to psychology • Big contributor to growth of psychology in U.S. • Studied briefly with Wundt • Established America’s 1 research lab in psychology at John Hopkins University st • Established America’s 1 journal st • Driving force of the American Psychological Association and was elected the 1 president 3. Describe structuralism and its impact on the subsequent development of psychology. • Founded by Wundt and Titchener, it focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components • “Consciousness is based on 3 elemental states: sensations, images, affections” • Used method of introspection (the self-observation of one’s own conscious experience) and labs • Defined psychology as the scientific study of the contents of the conscious mind • Using introspection was too subjective 4. Describe functionalism and its impact on the subsequent development of psychology. • William James and Stanley Hall were interested in studying the functions of consciousness • Darwinian perspective of natural selection • Defined psychology as the study of the functions of psychological abilities • Functions of a conscious experience in providing adaptation of the organism is more important that the structure of that conscious experience • May have attracted women to psychology • Fostered two descendants that dominated modern psychology: behaviourism and applied psychology 5. Summarize Watson’s views on the appropriate subject matter of psychology, nature vs. nurture and animal research. • Proposed that psychologists abandon the study of consciousness altogether and focus exclusively on behaviours they could observe directly • The believed that mental processes were not a proper subject for scientific study because they are private events • Can only study what people do or say; cannot accompany these observable behaviours with thoughts or feelings2 • Nurture over nature • Convinced that learning is the same in all creatures 6. Summarize Freud’s principal ideas and why they inspired controversy. • Emphasized the influence of the unconscious mind on behaviour • Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour • Most controversy from the idea that a person’s behaviour is influenced by how they cope with their sexual urges 7. Summarize Skinner’s work, views and influence. • Developed a system based on his own philosophy of radical behaviourism • Believed that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and not repeat negative/ neutral ones • People are controlled by their environment, not themselves • “Free will is an illusion” • Influenced academia and the general population 8. Summarize Rogers’ and Maslow’s ideas and the contributions of humanistic psychology. • To fully understand behaviour, psychologists must take into account the fundamental human drive toward personal growth • Biggest contributions are treatments for psychological problems and disorders 9. Describe important contributions to the emergence of experimental psychology in Canada. • 1 experimental lab by James Baldwin at U of T • 1 psychology course offered at Dalhousie st • 1 stademic department of psychology at McGill • 1 Canadian president of APA was John Baird • Establishment of Canadian Psychological Association • Brenda Milner of McGill was one of the founders of neuropsychology 11. Explain how historical events have contributed to the emergence of psychology as a profession. • During World War II, many academic psychologists were pressed into service as clinicians 12. Describe two recent trends in research in psychology that reflect a return to psychology’s intellectual roots. • Consciousness (now called cognition) and the psychological bases of behaviour 13. Describe Donald Hebb’s significance to the emergence of contemporary psychology. • Speculated that cell-assemblies explain neural networks 14. Explain why Western psychology traditionally had barely any interest in other cultures and why this situation has begun to change. • Cross-cultural research is costly and difficult • Cultural comparisons may inadvertently make stereotypes of various culture groups • Ethnocentrism (viewing one’s own group as superior) • Began to change because of sociopolitical upheavals such as civil rights, women’s and gay rights movement • Also, world is more diverse and it is easier to travel now 16. Summarize the basic tenets of evolutionary psychology. • Examines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations • Males’ superiority in mental rotation and navigation developed because the chore of hunting were mostly for men • Females more superior on spatial skills that would have facilitated gathering 17. Describe how positive psychology represents a novel trend in psychological theory and research. • Historically, psychology devoted to much attention on negative aspects • Uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence 18. Discuss the growth of psychology and the most common work settings for contemporary psychologists. • Developed from philosophical speculation to science • Private practice, colleges and universities, hospitals and clinics, business and government, elementary and secondary schools 19. List and describe 7 major research areas in psychology. 1. Developmental- human development across the life span 2. Social- interpersonal behaviour ex. Attitude change 3. Experimental- sensation, perception, learning, conditioning etc. 4. Physiological- genetic factors on behaviour, role of brain 5. Cognitive- higher mental processes such as memory, reasoning 6. Personality- consistency in behaviour which represents personality 7. Psychometrics- tests to assess personality, intelligence 20. List and describe the 4 professional specialties in psychology. 1. Clinical- diagnosis and treatment 2. Counseling- assistance to people struggling with everyday problems 3. Educational and School- improve curriculum, help children 4. Industrial and Organizational- human resources, job satisfaction 21. Summarize the text’s three unifying themes relating to psychology as a field of study. 1. Empirical- based on direct observation 2. Theoretically diverse- construct theories to explain findings 3. Evolves in sociohistorical context- trends, issues and values in society influence psychology’s evolution ex. Cultural diversity made people pay more attention to cultural factors as determinants of behaviour 22. Summarize the text’s four unifying themes relating to psychology’s subject matter. 1. Behaviour is determined by multiple causes 2. Behaviour is shaped by cultural heritage 3. Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour 4. People’s experience of the world is highly subjective- see what they want or expect; scientific approach because it is the most reliable for accurate knowledge 23. Describe 3 important considerations in designing a program to promote adequate studying. 1. Set a schedule 2. Find a place where you can concentrate 3. Reward your studying 24. Describe the SQ3R method and explain what makes it effective. • Study system for effective reading: survey, question, read, recite, review 25. Summarize advice provided on how to get more out of lectures. • Stay motivated, attentive and expend the effort to make your notes as complete as possible • Active listening, read ahead, ask questions Extra info. from lecture: • Behaviour = The actions or reactions of a person or animal in response to external or internal stimuli • Psychology is the study of behaviour, mind and their neurobiological processes • Gestaltism- experience things as a unified whole Chapter 7- Human Memory 1. Describe the three basic human memory processes. 1. Acquisition/ Encoding- process of interpreting and transforming into the code used by the brain 2. Retaining/ Consolidating- the process stabilizing a memory after its initial acquisition 3. Testing/ Decoding- process of translating stored information back into the code used for reporting/ expressing it 2. Discuss the role of attention for memory. • Focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events • Example of selective attention- someone calling your name in a different conversation and you hear it • Encoding happens when paying attention because of effortful processing or information is acquired more automatically 3. Describe the three levels of encoding discussed by Craik and Lockhart, and how depth of processing relates to memory. 1. Structural encoding/ Shallow processing- physical structure of stimulus 2. Phonemic encoding/ Intermediate processing- what a word sounds like 3. Semantic encoding/ Deep processing- meaning of word 4. Discuss three techniques for enriching encoding and research on each. 1. Elaboration- link stimulus to other information 2. Visual Imagery- high-imagery words have better recall 3. Self-referent encoding- how the information is personally relevant which lead to improved recall 5. Describe the role of the sensory store in memory. • Holds information for a fraction of a second • In case of vision, people perceive an afterimage rather than actual stimulus 6. Discuss the characteristics of short-term memory and describe the differences between maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal. • STM- holds unrehearsed information for about 20 seconds • Maintenance rehearsal- repetition of the same type of processing • Elaborative rehearsal- increasing the probability that you will retain the information in the future by moving from shallow to deeper levels 7. Describe the durability and capacity of short-term memory. • Without rehearsal, information in STM is lost in less than 20 seconds due to decay in memory traces or interference from competing material • Can only hold 7 + 2 or 4 + 1 • Can increase capacity by chunking information which involves retrieving information from LTM to STM 8. Describe Baddeley’s model of working memory. • Limited capacity storage system that temporarily maintains and stores information by providing an interface between perception, memory, and action • Consists of: phonological rehearsal loop, executive control system, visuospatial sketchpad, episodic buffer 9. Evaluate the hypothesis that all memories are stored permanently in long-term memory. • ESB induced recollections were not always exact replays of the past • Flashbulb memories are not that accurate or as special as they once believed – only special because of the emotional intensity attached to them • There is no convincing evidence that memories are stored away 11. Describe conceptual hierarchies, schemas, and semantic networks, and their role in long-term memory. • Conceptual hierarchy- multilevel classification system based on common properties among items • Schemas- cluster taken from previous experience; people remember things that are consistent with their schemas or that violate their schemas • Semantic network- nodes are concepts joined by pathways that link things that are related 12. Explain how parallel distributed processing (PDP) models view the representation of information in memory. • Specific memories correspond to particular patterns of activation in a large network of interconnected computing units that operate much like neurons 13. Explain how retrieval cues and context cues influence retrieval. • Retrieval cues- stimuli that help get access to memories ex. Given the definition of a word and you are supposed to come up with the word • Context cues- recalling an event by putting yourself back into the context in which it occurred ex. Forgetting what you wanted to get when you go in a different room • Encoding specificity principal- condition during encoding and retrieval should be the same ex. If you did something while intoxicated you should be able to remember when intoxicated again • Hypnosis cannot enhance retrieval 14. Discuss Bartlett’s work and research on the misinformation effect. • Helped in the development of modern schema-based models of memory • Part of what people recall about an event is the details of the particular event and part is a reconstruction of the event based on their schemas • Misinformation effect- when participants recall an event they witnessed and it is altered by introducing misleading post-event information 15. Discuss the implications of evidence on source monitoring and reality monitoring. • People focus on several types of clues in making reality monitoring decisions such as feeling putting your umbrella in your bag or seeing yourself packing it away – age can affect this • People have to make decision at the time of retrieval of where the memory came from like where did they read this article 16. Describe Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve and three measures of retention. • Worked with nonsense syllables so that his study would not be contaminated by his previous learning • Graphs retention and forgetting over time • Most forgetting happens right after learning something • Recall- reproduce information on their own without cues • Recognition- select previously learned information from many options • Relearning- memorize information a second time to determine how much time or how many practice trials are saved by having learned it before 17. Explain how forgetting may be due to ineffective encoding. • Different approaches to encoding can lead to more forgetting than others such as phonemic encoding over semantic encoding 18. Compare and contrast decay and interference as potential causes of forgetting. • Decay proposes that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time • Interference proposes that forgetting occurs because of competition from other material • Retroactive interference- new information impairs previous information • Proactive interference- previous information impairs new information 19. Explain how forgetting may be due to factors in the retrieval process. • Failures are more likely when there is a poor fit between processing done during encoding and processing invoked by measure of retention (TAP) • Repression- keeping distressing thoughts in the unconscious 20. Summarize evidence for the view that recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse may be genuine. • Common for people to bury traumatic incidents in their unconscious • Women failed to report their abuse 17 years later 21. Summarize evidence for the view that recovered memories of childhood sexual abuses are inaccurate. • Skeptics think that some therapists lead them to believe their problems must be a result of abuse • A daughter thought she was pregnant before and had undergone a coat hanger abortion but her father had a vasectomy and she was still a virgin 22. List and define the seven sins of memory. 1. Transience- weakening of memory over time 2. Absentmindedness- memory failure because of lack of attention 3. Blocking- fail to retrieve an item of information 4. Misattribution- assign memory to wrong source 5. Suggestibility- distorted memory because of misleading questions 6. Bias- inaccuracy due to current knowledge of past 7. Persistence- unwanted memories that you cannot forget 23. Summarize evidence on the biochemistry and neural circuitry underlying memory. • Reflex learning in sea slug produces changes in strength of specific synaptic connections by enhancing the availability and release of neurotransmitters at these synapses • Long-term potentiation- memory traces consist of specific neural circuits 24. Distinguish between two types of amnesia, and identify the anatomical structures implicated in memory. • Retrograde amnesia- loss of memories before amnesia • Anterograde amnesia- loss of memories after amnesia • Hippocampus- long term memory and consolidation ex. H.M. • Amygdala- formation of memories for learned fears • Prefrontal cortex- working memory • Right hemisphere- visuospatial sketchpad • Left hemisphere- phonological loop 25. Distinguish between implicit versus explicit memory and their relationship to declarative versus procedural memory. • Implicit- retention is exhibited on a task that does not require intentional remembering – related to procedural memory • Explicit- remembering something in a conscious deliberate manner – related to declarative memory (handles factual information) 26. Explain the distinctions between episodic versus semantic memory and prospective versus retrospective • Episodic is made up of chronological memories of personal experiences while semantic is contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time it was learned • Prospective involves remembering to perform actions in the future and retrospective involves remembering events from the past or previously learned experience Extra info. from lecture: • Modal model of memory- sensory memory then STM then LTM • Sensory memories- hold information long enough to analyze for higher-level processes • Iconic memory- sensory memory for visual stimuli that have just been perceived – virtually unlimited • Echoic memory- sensory memory for sounds that have just been perceived • Build up and release from proactive interference- in the first trial there is little forgetting but after many trials there is more and more forgetting evident • Sleep can prevent/minimize retroactive interference • Serial position curve- recall more in primacy effect and recency effect and refers more to attention whereas LOP is processing– affect primacy only by stopping rehearsal and affect recency only by retroactive interference • TAP focuses on study and test phase processing • Mnemonics does not organize information Chapter 2: The Research Enterprise in Psychology 1. Describe the goals of the scientific enterprise in psychology. • Measurement and Description • Understanding and Prediction • Manipulation and control • Construct theories (to help explain a set of observations) 2. Explain the relations between theory, hypotheses and research. • Theory must be testable • Hypotheses are derived from the theory • If empirical research supports hypotheses then confidence increases 3. Outline the steps in a scientific investigation. • Formulate a testable hypothesis provided with operational definitions (give exact description of how to derive a value for the variable) • Select research method and design the study • Collect data • Analyze data and draw conclusions using statistics • Report findings 5. Discuss the advantages of the scientific approach. • Specifies exactly what they are talking about • Scientific method has a relative intolerance of error – scientists are trained to be skeptical 6.Describe the experimental method, explaining independent and dependent variables, experimental and control groups, and extraneous variables. • Purpose of an experiment is to see how changing the independent variable affects the dependent variable • Two groups are assembled: experimental group receive special treatment with the independent variable and the control group do not receive the special treatment that the experimental group gets • Any differences because of the different groups must be due to the manipulation of the independent variable • Extraneous variables are variables you cannot control ex. Mood, sleep • Confounding of variables is more selective while extraneous is random 7. Explain the major advantages and disadvantages of the experimental method. • Provides conclusions about cause and effect relationships between variables • Experiments are often artificial • Field experiments help make it less artificial and more applicable to real-life • Experimental method cant be used to explore some research questions 8. Discuss the three descriptive/correlational research methods: naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys. • Naturalistic observation- observing behaviour without intervening directly with the subjects; makes it less artificial but difficult to not disturb • Case study- in-depth investigation of an individual subject but can be highly subjective • Survey- questions or interviews but problems with wording/ self-reporting data could affect it 9. Explain the major advantages and disadvantages of descriptive/correlational research. • Broadens the scope of phenomena that psychologists are able to study • Cannot conclude cause and effect 10. Describe three measures of central tendency and one measure of variability. • Central tendency- median (middle), mean (average), mode (frequent) • Negatively skewed has more scores at the high end and positively skewed has more scores at the lower end • Variability- standard deviation 11. Describe the normal distribution and how to understand test scores and percentile ranks. • Normal distribution th symmetrical bell shaped • Percentile score- 60 percentile means 40% scored above you 12. Distinguish between positive and negative correlations. • Positive- two variables co-vary in the same direction • Negative- opposite directions • Closer to 0 in size of correlation means no relationship between variables 13. Discuss correlation in relation to prediction and causation. • Better able to predict if another variable increases • Does not tell the cause-and-effect relationship between variables – not equivalent to causation 14. Explain the meaning of statistical significance. • Probability that the findings are due to chance are low 15. Explain the importance of replication and of meta-analysis. • Replicate study to see if you get the same results • Meta-analysis- combining many results of many studies of the same question 16. Explain what makes a sample representative, and discuss the problem of sampling bias. • Sample representative- collection of subjects for observation • Sampling bias- not representative of the entire population 17. Explain when placebo effects are likely to be a problem. • Have exaggerated benefits in some studies 18. Describe the typical type of distortions that occur in self-report data and discuss the methods that have been developed recently to deal with these problems. • Self-report data- social desirability bias, response sets (always agreeing/disagreeing), halo effect (evaluation of a person spills over to influence more specific ratings) • Implicit Association Test to measure attitudes and biases without the person being aware 19. Describe Rosenthal’s research on experimenter bias. • May lead researchers to unintentionally influence behaviour of their subjects ex. Smiling/ nodding when someone gives the right info that fits their data • Use double-blind procedure to neutralize 22. Describe 4 key principles of ethical research as set out by CPA. 1. Respect for the Dignity of Persons 2. Responsible Caring 3. Integrity in Relationships 4. Responsibility in Society 23. Explain how this chapter discussed two of the text’s unifying themes. • Psychology is empirical • People’s experience of the world is highly subjective 27. Explain why anecdotal evidence is flawed and unreliable. • Only represents a single case study and is similar to self-report data where they may give answers that are socially acceptable Extra info. from lecture: • Scientific method- an approach to making observations under the guidance of theories and with data to refine theories; process by which scientists construct a valid representation of the world; self-correcting process • Ho- no effect ; H1- has effect ; H1A- decrease or increase • External validity- how it can be true for other cases • Ecological validity- lab study to real world *high for survey, naturalistic observation and correlational – can’t have on its own has to be with external • Famous confounds- self-fulfilling prophecy, hawthorne effect (initial improvement in a process of production caused by the obtrusive observation of that process) • Common confounds- may be due to order in which images were presented and counterbalancing helps remove this • Reliability= consistent results : measurement, test-retest, inter-observer, parallel- forms • Valid and reliable, reliable and invalid or neither Chapter 3: The Biological Bases of Behaviour 2. Describe the various parts of the neuron and their functions. • Soma or cell body- contains cell nucleus • Dendrites- receive information • Axon- long thin fibre transmitting signals away from the cell body to other neurons • Myelin sheath- encases some axons; speeds up transmission of signals ex. Multiple sclerosis is due to a degeneration in myelin sheath • Terminal buttons- secrete neurotransmitters • Synapse- point where neurons interconnect; information is transmitted from one neuron to another 3. Summarize the role of glial cells in the brain. • About 10:1 from glial to neuron • Supply nourishment to neurons • Help remove waste product and provide insulation around axons • Development of nervous system in the human embryo • Associated with ALS, parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia and mood disorders • Play important role in memory formation 4. Describe the neural impulse. • Resting potential of a neuron is negative when inactive • When neuron is stimulated, an action potential is created • Absolute refractory period is the minimum length after an action potential during which another action potential cannot being • All-or-none- either the neuron fires or it doesn’t but stronger stimuli will cause it to fire more rapidly (thicker axons more rapid) 5. Describe how neurons communicate at chemical synapses. • The arrival of an action potential at an axon’s terminal button triggers the release of neurotransmitters • Within the button, most chemicals are stored in synaptic vesicles • Vesicles fuse with the presynaptic cell and its content go into the synaptic cleft • Then they may bind with receptor sites of the postsynaptic cell 6. Describe the two types of postsynaptic potentials and how neurons integrate signals and form neural circuits. • Excitatory PSP- positive voltage shift that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials • Inhibitory PSP- a negative voltage shift • Reuptake- neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane • State of neuron is a weighted balance between excitatory and inhibitory influences • Interconnected neurons fire together or sequentially perform certain functions 7. Discuss some of the functions of acetylcholine and the monoamine neurotransmitters as well as their agonists and antagonists. • Acetylcholine- activates motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles, contributes to attention, arousal and memory -associated with Alzheimer’s -agonist= nicotine (binds and acts like Ach) antagonist= curare (bind but nothing happens/blocks) • Dopamine- control voluntary movement/ pleasurable emotions -decreased levels= Parkinson’s -overactivity = schizophrenia / craving+addiction • Seratonin- regulates sleep, wakefulness and eating -associated with depression, OCD, and eating disorders • Norepinephrine- modulation of mood and arousal -cocaine and amphetamines elevate activity 8. Discuss how GABA, glycine, glutamate and endorphins are related to behaviour. • GABA & glycine- disturbances may contribute to anxiety disorders (inhibition in CNS) • Glutamate- excitatory effects, important for memory and learning, schizophrenic disorders • Endorphins- resemble opiate drugs and help with pain and pleasurable emotions 9. Provide an overview of the peripheral nervous system, including its subdivisions. • Nerves that lie outside brain and spinal cord 1. Somatic- voluntary; afferent (incoming to CNS) efferent (outgoing) 2. Autonomic- involuntary; connect to heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles and glands -> Sympathetic: fight or flight Parasympathetic: conserves bodily resources 10. Distinguish between the central nervous system and the PNS. • CNS consists of brain and spinal cord • Cerebralspinal fluid nourishes brain 11. Describe how EEG, lesioning, ESB, and TMS are used to investigate brain function. • EEG (electroencephalograph)- patterns of brain activity while engaged in specific behaviours/ emotions • Lesioning- destroying a piece of the brain (use stereotaxic) • ESB (electrical stimulation of the brain)- weak electric current to map brain/ record sounds • TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation)- enhance or depress activity in a specific area to see if it is affected in a following task 12. Describe the new brain imaging methods that are used to study brain structure and function. • CT scan- x-ray of brain structure (least expensive) • PET scan- examine brain function; colour codes activity in brain • MRI- better than CT at brain structure • fMRI- monitors blood flow and oxygen consumption in brain 14. Summarize the key functions of the medulla, pons, cerebellum, and midbrain. • Medulla- attaches to the spinal cord; circulates blood, breathing, maintaining muscle tone, regulates reflexes such as breathing, coughing and sneezing • Pons- bridge connecting brainstem with cerebellum; involved with sleep and arousal • Cerebellum- coordination/ balance • Midbrain- sensory processes; degeneration in this area causes Parkinson’s • Running through hindbrain and midbrain is reticular formation- regulation of sleep and arousal (same place as pons) 15. Summarize the key functions of thalamus and hypothalamus. • Thalamus- in forebrain where all sensory info except smell passes to get to the cerebral cortex (big blob in middle) • Hypothalamus- base of forebrain and involved in the regulation of basic biological needs 16. Describe the nature and location of the limbic system, and summarize some of its key functions. • Located along border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas • Regulation of emotion, memory and motivation and/or optimistic approach to life 17. Name the four lobes in the cerebral cortex, and identify some of their key functions. • Occipital- visual processing (back) • Parietal- sense of touch (in front of occipital) • Temporal- auditory processing (below parietal) • Frontal- muscle movement (largest) 18. Summarize evidence on neurogenesis and the brain’s plasticity. • Aspects of experience can sculpt features of brain structure • Destruction of brain tissue can lead to neural reorganization • Adult brain can generate new neurons in olfactory bulb and hippocampus • Neurogenesis- formation of new neurons 19. Explain why scientists viewed the left hemisphere as the dominant hemisphere, and describe how split-brain research changed this view. • Usually processes language, handles higher mental processes (remembering, planning, problem solving) • Split-brain surgery- corpus callosum is cut to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures • Side note: left hemisphere controls and communicates with right hand, arm etc. and vice-versa & vision and hearing go to both hemispheres • W/o corpus callosum subject could only describe the picture in the right visual field and thus sent to the left hemisphere • Also found out the right hemisphere is better in visual-spatial tasks and could point to images, assemble little puzzles and copy drawings 20. Describe how neuroscientists conduct research on cerebral specialization in normal subjects and what this research has revealed. • Present image to the right visual field= identified more quickly by left hemisphere; but right hemisphere is faster at locating a dot or recognizing a face • Left is better on tasks involving verbal processing such as language, speech, reading, writing • Right is better in nonverbal processing such as spatial, musical, and visual recognition tasks and tasks involving the perception of others’ emotions 21. Describe some of the
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