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University of British Columbia
PSYC 101

Psych101NeuronsandBrainFunctionNeurons cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform informationprocessing tasksLate 1880s Santiago Ramn y Cajal used Golgi stain to highlight the appearance of neurons His technique revealed that the neurons came in different shapes and sizesCell body the largest component of the neuron that coordinates the informationprocessing tasks and keeps the cell alive Functions protein synthesis energy production metabolism Cell body is surrounded by a porous cell membrane that allows molecules to flow into and out of the cellNucleus a structure that houses chromosomes that contain DNA the genetic blueprint Dendrites neurons cell membrane that receive information from other neurons and relay it to the cell body Axon neurons cell membrane that transmits information to other neurons muscles or glandsMyelin sheath an insulating layer of fatty material composed of glial cells support cells found in the nervous systemSynapse the junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of anotherNeuron typesSensory neurons receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain via the spinal cord Have specialized endings on their dendrites that receive signals for light sound touch taste and smellMotor neurons carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement Often have long axons that can stretch to muscles at our extremitiesInterneurons connect sensory neurons motor neurons and perform a variety of information processing functions within the nervous system Perform together in small circuits to perform simple tasks eg identifying the location of a sensory signal and complicated tasks eg
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