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PSYC 101
Kristie Dukewich

descartes thought people are born with the knowledge they have, that they rationalize everything through rather than based on experience Ch.1 Information Processing - Cognitivism - inferring mental behaviors through mental processing - WW2 Neurobiology - biology of the nervous system - strongly advocated by Hebb - you could correlate behavior with activity in the brain, the brain gives rise to mental operations, that we can connect them - popular idiom: Neurons that fire together wire together - behaviour and mental phenomena could be directly related to brain activity - continuing to revolutionize psychology CH 8. Memory - memory is the record of our past experiences - the storage of information, very behavioral memory Overview of Memory - technically defined as *encoding - storage - retrieval - encoding: getting it in - storage: maintenance - retrieval: getting it out - Modal Model of Memory - implication that info flows from one type of memory to another - Sensory Input -> - get information through the senses - briefly represented in sensory memory and if memory is selected through there, then it is technically short term memory - permanent store = long term memory Sensory Memory -transient representation based on physical input 1. Iconic Memory - - transient representational memory on visual memory based on looking at an image - usually, very short term representation - access to it less than a second / around a second - Sperling (1960): he would flash array of letters, immediately after he would present a high, medium, low pitch tone => people could report entire row - suggests that iconic memory represents a lot of information - it came very rapidly and disappears quickly - capacity big, duration very short - iconic memory about 50% - whole report experiment - partial report experiment 2. Echoic Memory - sensory memory for sounds that have just been perceived - 3-eared man experiment (auditory experiment) - had 3 speakers, and each speaker presented 3 digit number in sequence - whole report = 45% accuracy - partial report(with visual) = 55% accuracy - partial report is better if delay is up to 4s, which suggests that capacity of an echoic memory is not impressive as iconic memory but duration is significantly longer - echoic memory lasts up to 20s (phenomenon) - Short-term &Working Memory - maintains numbers, recall math, perform operation - allows you to perform mental operations - ability to remember what we have just perceived, think about it in terms of what we already know - because these efforts feel more like remembering something, which is why researchers refer this as working memory - are often used interchangeably - has limited capacity - 1. Primacy and Recency Effects - two things: 1. primacy - higher, intermediate- lower, recency - higher - Primacy effect - tendency to remember initial information, have opportunity to rehearse earlier information - Recency effect- tendency to recall later information, some of it based on echoic memory 2. The Limits of Working Memory - Peterson & Peterson (1959) - when rehearsal was disrupted, consonants remained accessible for only a few seconds - short term memory only has capacity of less than 20 seconds unless rehearsing - Millers Magic Number 7 (+/- 2) items - start out by giving a person a list of 2 numbers, then 3, then 4, up until they cannot recall sequence twice in row and thats their limit (the avg is closer to 5/6 generally) (higher for educated + younger people) (lower for older + less educated) - ex. GCRCMBSTCP -> GST-CBC-RCMP (chunking) - use Chunking: simplification by rules; easier to remember - Millers Magic Number still applies here, the bigger you can make your chunks the more you will be able to keep in working memory - working memory can manipulate both short + long term Encoding in Long Term Memory 1. The Consolidation Hypothesis - Consolidation: the process by which information in STM is converted into LTM - literal definition: physical changes that occur in neurons in the brain that are memory representations -dual trace hypothesis/ theory: entirely encompassed by neurons fire together wire together, first trace is short term memory which is the physical activity between neurons - the 3 cells around each other are active but they are not always touching. if reverberations are done in enough times, they will connect and touch together - a. physical activity - b. physical connection - evidence: head injury - most likely lose things that happen immediate to the head injury, the information requiring connections between neurons get lost - older informations are there because neurons are already connected - this is how memory goes from short term into long term memory 2. The Levels of Processing Hypothesis a. rehearsal i) maintenance rehearsal - keeps info available ii)elaborative rehearsal - relating new info to existing knowledge 3. Degrees of Processing a. shallow processing: processing of information that is based on superficial, physical prophemy of a stimulus ex. Is the word writing in capital letters? b. intermediate processing: processing more in the physical characteristics but not processing for meaning ex. Does the word rhyme with...? c. deep processing: where we are analyzing for meaning ex. Is the word a kind of ...? Is it an object that we can manipulate with hands - forcing people to connect ideas with knowledge already in our brains - accessing meaning of the word 4. Deeper Processing Improves Memory Hypothesis: 5. Improving LTM: Mnemonics 1. Mnemonics are strategies specifically designed for improving memory a. formal - pre-establish memory names, ex. ROYGBIV b. informal - more personal, idiosyncratic, people create them for themselves - any mental strategy to remember information - elaborate coding/processing - informal mnemonics tend to perform better than formal, because its based on our personal knowledge 2. Method of Loci - aka Memory Palace - retrieval as a walk through locations - idea is that you take a place you know very well and picture things u have to remember there - can be used for non-concrete objects 3. Peg Words - remember set of words that are in a mental sequence - use those words to pair with what we want to remember - create mental images and hang them on a peg that already exists that we can recall later - very similar to Method of Loci - we associate something figurative with an object, we can use Peg Words - the more bizarre imagery is, the better mnemonics will work - mundane things are not easily remembered The Organization of Long Term Memory 1. Episodic and Semantic Memory Episodic: record of our lifes experiences Semantic: data, facts, vocab, etc. (concrete, general info) distinction between Episodic + Semantic ex. patient K.C. - lost most of his episodic memory but has semantic memory knew he went to school but could not recall being at school could tell things he learned but could not remember specific classes could not tell about particular episodes involving his family but knows their names 2. Explicit and Implicit Memory Explicit memory - conscious recall (things that we know we know) facts, events, experiences Implicit Memory - expressed without conscious intervention skills, habits things that are difficult to talk about (ex. riding a bike) Idea that there are diff types of memory became clear when they worked with the particular patient: H.M. (Henry Molaison) research on his epilepsy caused the world of psychology to question that there are actually different types of memory, explicit and implicit 3. Amnesia
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