Psych Ch.4 Vocab .docx

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PSYC 101
Bobby Fokidis

Vocabulary Chapter 4 Synesthesia- The perceptual experience of one sense that is evoked by another sense Sensation- activation of receptors in the sense organs Perception- interpreting and organizing sensations experienced at any given moment in some meaningful way Transduction- what takes place when many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into encoded neural signals sent to the central nervous system Absolute Threshold- the smallest amount of energy to consciously detect a stimulus 50% of the time Just Noticeable Difference (JND)- smallest difference between 2 stimuli detectable 50% of the time Subliminal Stimuli- stimuli below level of conscious awareness (just strong enough to sense, but not strong enough to perceive) Subliminal Perception- subliminal stimuli act upon the unconscious mind to influence behavior Limin- “threshold” Sublimin- “below the threshold” Habituation- Tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging information Sensory Adaptation- tendency of sensory receptors to become less responsive (desensitized) to unchanging stimulus Saccades- constant eye movements, tiny little vibrations that people do not consciously notice that prevents sensory adaption to visual stimuli Vision Properties of Light: 1. Brightness- amplitude of the wave (higher=bright; lower=dimmer) 2. Color (hue)- length of the wave (long=red end; short=blue end) 3. Saturation- purity of the color people see; mixing in black or gray would also lessen the saturation Fovea- an area of the retina where vision is the clearest and there are no rods at all; point of central focus Cones- responsible for color vision and sharpness of vision Rods- responsible for non-color sensitivity to low light levels (in black & white; happens at night) Blind Spot (optic disc)- where axons of the retina cell layers form the optic nerve that exits the eye; is insensitive to light b/c there are no rods or cones Receptive Field- The region of the sensory surface that, when stimulated, causes a change in the firing rate of that neuron Cornea- clear membrane that covers surface, protects and focuses most of the light coming in to the eye Aqueous humor- clear, watery fluid that supplies nourishment Pupil- hole through which enters, can change in diameter (constrict vs. dilate) Iris- muscle (colored part) which surrounds the pupil and changes its size, helps to focus the image Lens- clear structure behind iris, suspended by muscles; finishes the focusing Vitreous humor- jelly-like fluid that nourishes the eye and gives it shape Trichromatic Color Representation- The pattern of responding across the three types of cones that provides a unique code for each color Color-Opponent System- Pairs of visual neurons that work in opposition Area V1- The part of the occipital lobe that contains the primary visual cortex Visual-Form Agnosia- The inability to recognize objects by sight Binding Problem- how features are linked together so that we see unified objects in our visual world rather than free-floating or miscombined feature Illusory Conjunction- A perceptual mistake where feature from multiple objects are incorrectly combined Attention- com
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