Psych Ch.6 Notes.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 101
Bobby Fokidis

Chapter 6 Memory - The ability to encode, store and retrieve perceived information from the outside world - 3 key functions of memory: encoding, storage, and retrieval - Memories are made by combining information we already have in our brains with new information that comes in through our senses - Are constructed, not recorded - Long term retention is greatly enhanced by elaborative encoding: semantic judgments (think about meaning of words), rhyme judgments (think about sound of the words), and visual judgments (think about appearance of words) - Elaborate encoding usually takes place in lower left part of frontal lobe and inner part of left temporal lobe - Participants who used semantic judgments had much better memory for words than ones who thought about visual and rhyme judgments - Visual image encoding: creates visual image, you relate incoming information to knowledge already in memory; ends up with two different mental “place holders” for the items-a visual and verbal one; activates visual processing regions in the occipital lobe - Organizational encoding: groups similar items together in sequence; activates the upper surface of the left frontal lobe - Survival encoding makes people remember more, possibly to do with natural selection Information Processing: 1. Sensory Register: holds sensory information for a few seconds or less; briefly holds an exact image of each sensory experience until it is processed a. Iconic memory test: flash grids of letters for 1/20 second, but cannot remember all, only if tone that indicates which row to remember will the person actually recall all the letters in that line b. Iconic memory, audiotic (echoic) memory, kinesthetic memory 2. Short-term memory: a type of storage that holds non-sensory information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute a. Holds ~7bits of info b. Encodes SR info for potential storage in long term memory c. Data refreshed every 30 secs usually through rehearsal d. Limited in how long and how much information it can hold e. Can hold 7 #s, 7 letters, or even 7 meaningful items by using the method of “chunking”- can increase memory by 200%, just like organizational encoding f. Can use mnemonics (e.g. Great lakes= H.O.M.E.S) g. Working memory includes the operations and processes we use to work with information in short term memory; depends on region in frontal lobe for controlling and manipulating info on a wide range of cognitive tasks 3. Long-term memory (LTM): a type of storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks or years- no known capacity limits a. Procedural LTM: memory of skills b. Episodic LTM: memory of a specific episode in your life c. Semantic LTM: memory for specific meaning of words, symbols, other information d. Organization of LTM facilitates info retrieval (storing an address with memory helps in its recall) e. Cognitively mapping of info into meaningful “trees” (adjoining memories together: e.g. good looking teacher=psychology=) f. Retrievel of LTM memories: 3 ways to test- i. Recognition: M/C exam ii. Recall: Essay iii. Relearning speed: how fast you learn this? - Hippocampus region acts as index (printed recipe, wont need it after many times making the recipe) o When damaged, causes anterograde amnesia or retrograde amnesia o Explains why they cannot make new memories and why they can remember old ones - Hippocampus not as important overtime relates to concept of consolidation: more resistant to disruption o Childhood amnesia: inability to remember events and experiences that occurred during the first 2 or 3 years of life  Cognitive explanations: lack of sense of self, impoverished encoding, a focus on the routine, different ways of thinking about the world o Anterograde amnesia: caused by brain surgery, brain trauma, brain tumors, lack of oxygen (anoxia) to the brain, stroke, senility, severe nutritional deficiencies o Retrograde amnesia: can recall childhood memories but cant remember anything from few days ago  Caused by severe psychological or brain trauma; fugue stat
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