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Psych 102 Midterm 1 Review.docx

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PSYC 102
David Klonsky

Chapter 14 Social PsychologySocial ThinkingSocial psychology the scientific study of how we think about influence and relate to one another why do people act differently in different situationsAttribution theory we explain someones behavior by crediting either the situation or the persons dispositionFundamental attribution error tendency for observers when analyzing ones behavior to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition Ex In classroom Juliette seldom talks therefore shes shy at a party shy Juliette is unrecognizable Westerners more often attribute behavior to individualistic traitsWe are more likely to commit the fundamental attribution error when a stranger acts badlyOur attributions to a persons disposition or situation have real consequencesAttitudes and ActionsAttitudes feelings often influenced by our beliefs that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects people and events Our attitudes affect our actions our actions affect our attitudesAttitudes affect our actionsPeripheral route persuasion occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues such as a speakers attractiveness Ex A perfume may lure us with images of beautyCentral route persuasionoccurs when interested people focus on arguments and respond with favorable thoughts Ex EvidenceActions affect AttitudesAttitudes follow behaviorFootinthedoor phenomenon the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request Doing becomes believingRole a set of expectations about a social position defining how those in the position ought to behave acting becomes reality Ex Stanford Prison simulation Cognitive dissonance theory we act to reduce the discomfort dissonance we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent when we become aware that our attitudes and actions clash we change our attitudes Social InfluenceAutomatic mimicry We are natural mimics unconsciously imitating others expressions postures and voice tonesConformity and Social NormsConformity adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standardAsch Line Study line test We are more likely to conform if we o Are made to feel insecure o Are in a group o Are in a group in which everyone agrees o Admire the groups status o EtcNormative social influence influence resulting from a persons desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval to belongInformational social influence influence resulting from ones willingness to accept others opinions about reality Ex I choose ubc bc my family and friends say its better than sfuObedience StudiesMilgrams shock experiments obedience is highest when o The person giving orders was a legitimate authority figure o The authority figure was supported by a prestigious institution o The victim was depersonalizedat a distance o No role models for defianceStrong social influences can make people conform to falsehoods or capitulate to cruelty and vice versaGroup BehaviorSocial facilitation stronger responses on simple or welllearned tasks in the presence of othersstrengthens our likeliest response experts do better amateurs do worseSocial Loafing tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable ex Tug of warDeindividuation the loss of selfawareness and selfrestraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymityEx Internet bullies hide behind anonymity
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