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PSYC 102 Midterm: PSYCMidterm2

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PSYC 102
Darko Odic

Social Psychology Social Psychology ​is the​ study of the causes and consequences of sociality → ​Social behaviour​ (how people interact with each other) - Only four species became ​ultrasocial ​(forming societies in which large numbers of individuals ​divide labour and cooperate ​for mutual benefits and ​willing to die for the others​):​ the hymenoptera, the termites, the naked mole rats and humans - Survival through helping or hurting each other - Aggression - Hostile Aggression​: aggressive behaviour indented to physically harm another person (e.g., punching, hitting, shooting, pushing, etc.). - Instrumental Aggression​: aggressive behavior intended to acquire an object, person, or social status with no deliberate intention of harming another person (e.g., robbing a bank, hacking a computer). - Relational Aggression​: aggressive behaviour intended to hurt another person’s social status or relationships (e.g., gossiping, exclusion). - Behaviour with the purpose of harming others - Frustration-aggression hypothesis​:​ animals aggress when their desires are frustrated - Aggression is a response to negative affect - Many scientists think it doesn’t go far enough - Argues that because of aggression is negative affect (feeling bad) and that a frustrated desire is just one of many things that might induce negative affect. - If animals aggress when they feel bad, then anything that makes them feel bad should increase aggression - BIOLOGY: male→ more aggressive → testosterone → feel powerful and confident - More sensitive to provocation and less sensitive to signs of retaliation - Women → much less likely than men to cause physical injury, slightly less likely to cause psychological injury but more likely to cause social harm - CULTURE: aggression is a part of evolution heritage but still inevitable - Cooperation - Behaviour by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit - Risk and Trust: prisoner’s dilemma - Groups and Favouritism - A ​group​ is​ a collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others - Prejudice​ is ​a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on his or her group membership - Discrimination ​is ​a positive or negative behaviour toward another person based on his or her group membership - Members are positively prejudiced toward fellow members and tend to discriminate in their favor. - Common Knowledge effect​: ​tendency for group discussions to focus on information that all members share - Group polarization:​ ​tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than any member would have made alone - Groupthink​: t ​ endency for groups to reach consensus in order to facilitate interpersonal harmony - Deindividuation​: ​immersion in group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values - Diffusion of responsibility​:​ tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by other who are acting the same way - Social lifting:​ ​tendency for people to expend less effort when in a group than alone. - Bystander intervention:​ ​unlikely to help strangers in emergency situation with group - Belonging is not just a source of psychological and physical wellbeing but also a ​source of identity. Robber’s Cave Experiment - Altruism - Behaviour that benefits another without benefitting oneself - Kin selection​: ​process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives - Reciprocal altruism​:​ behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future - Reproduction - Selectivity - Women tend to be choosier than men (BIO: many sperm, few eggs) Zimbardo Prison Experiment - Attraction - Situational Factors​: P ​ roximity not only provides the opportunity for attraction, it also provides the motivation: people work especially hard to like those with whom they expect to have interaction - Mere exposure effect​:​ tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure - People may misinterpret physiological arousal as a sign of attraction - Physical Factors​:​ Body shape (male: inverted triangle, female: hourglass) - Symmetry and Age - Psychological Factor​: ​attraction to people with similar viewpoints - Relationships - Passionate love:​ ​experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy an intese exual attraction (what brings people together) - Companionate love​: ​experience involving affection, trust and concern for a partner’s well-being (what makes people to stay together) - Social exchange:​ hypothesis that people remain in relationship only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits - Comparison level: ​outcome people feel the should receive in terms of rewards and costs - Comparison level for alternatives​: ​availability and cost-benefit ration of an alternative outcome - Equity​:​ state of affairs in which the cost-benefit ratios of two partners are roughly equal - Once people have poured resources into a relationship, they are willing to settle for less favorable cost-benefit ratios. → Social influence​ (how people change each other) - Social influence​ is the ​ability to control another person’s behaviour. - Hedonic Motive​ ​(Pleasure is better than Pain) - Approval Motive ​(​Acceptance is better than rejection) - Norms​: c ​ ustomary standards of behaviour that are widely shared by members of a culture - Norm of reciprocity​:​ unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefitted them - Normative influence​: another person’s behaviour provides information about what is appropriate - Door-in-the-face technique:​ ​influence strategy that involves getting someone to deny an initial request - Conformity​: ​tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it.​ ​+ Asch’s conformity study - Obedience​: t ​ endency to do what powerful people tell us to do - Milgram’s obedience studies: teacher and learner with electricity - No physical presence and undermined norm decreased obedience - Accuracy motive ​(Right is better than Wrong) - Attitude​: ​ nduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event - What we should do - Belief​: ​enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event - How we should do - Informational influence: ​another person’s behaviour provides information about what is true - Persuasion:​ ​a person’s attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person - Systematic persuasion:​ ​process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason​ (logic) - Heuristic persuasion:​ ​process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by emotion and habits - Implicit Priming:​ a method of persuasion that subtly suggests an idea, belief, or concept to the participant and affects their subsequent behaviour without their realization - Consistency - Foot-in-the-door technique:​ ​making a small request and then following it with a larder request - Cognitive dissonance​: u ​ npleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes and beliefs - When small inconsistencies are justified by large consistencies, cognitive dissonance is reduced. → ​Social cognition​ (how people think about each other) - Social cognition​: ​process by which people come to understand others and your brain is doing it all day long. - Categorization​ is ​process by which people identify a stimulus as a member of a class related - Stereotyping​: process which ​people draw inferences about others based on their knowledge of the categories to which others belong. - Inaccurate, overused, self-perpetuating - Stereotype threat​: ​the fear of confirming the negative beliefs that others may hold - Perceptual confirmation​: t ​ endency for people to see what they expect to see - Subtyping:​ ​tendency for people who receive disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them. - Stereotypes happen ​unconsciously and automatically - Implicit Associations Test (IAT): ​a psychological test that measures the degree of implicit and automatic stereotyping - Attribution​: ​inference about the cause of a person’s behaviour. - Situational: ​behaviors cause by some temporary aspect of the situation in which it happened​ (​low consistency, high consensuality, high distinctiveness​) - More complex and require more time and attention - Dispositional​: ​behavior caused by a relatively enduring tendency to think, feel, or act in a particular way​ (​high consistency, low consensuality, low distinctiveness) - Covariation model - CONSISTENCY (how often), CONSENSUALITY (how many people), DISTINCTIVENESS OF THE ACTION (perform similar action) - Actor-observer effect:​ ​tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviours while making dispositional attributions for the identical behaviour of others. - attribute the cause of your own behavior to external factors, while judging other people's behaviors as being caused by the nature of that individual. Stress and Health Stressors​: ​specific events of chronic pressures that place demands on a person or threaten the person’s well-being. Stress​: ​physical and psychological response to internal or external stressors Health psychology: ​subfield of psychology concerned with the ways psychological factors influence the causes and treatment of physical illness and maintenance of health
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