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PSYC 102 Final: PSYCFinal

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PSYC 102
Darko Odic

Development Developmental Psychology​:​ science of continuity and change across the lifespan, from conception through adulthood and eventual death Nativism​: theory that children are born with specific, structured abilities or those that will automatically develop with maturity (ex. puberty) Empiricism:​ theory that children must acquire certain skills with experience and practice (ex. reading) Stage-Theories​: children develop through a series of universal “stages” and every child must complete a stage in a specific way before moving to the next one: different abilities come from different stages Continuous-Theories:​ each child develops according to their own path; development is fluid and continuous and any ability can emerge at any time depending on the child’s experiences and/or genetics Domain-Generality​:​ idea that all aspects of the mind are connected into a unified whole; the development of one ability necessarily implies the development of others (g) Domain-Specificity​: idea that different aspect of the human mind are independent/ modular of each other, and thus the development of one is independent from the development of others (multiple intelligences) Measuring changes: - Cross-Sectional Design​: a correlational/ experimental design whereby many participants of different ages/cohorts are all tested in parallel and compared to each other. (EX. IQ test with different age groups at once) - Pros: quick, easy to do, powerful result - Cons: Cohort effects: third-variable problem in cross-sectional research, whereby differences between young and old adults could be largely attributed to changes in socialization, nutrition, or experience with computers and tests rather than age - ​Longitudinal Design​: correlational/experimental design whereby a single person does the same study multiple times over their lifetime and scores are compared to themselves (EX. IQ test by one participant as he ages) - Pros: No cohort effects and third-variable problems - Cons: time intensive, expensive, high attrition rates (dropout people) Measuring Behaviours: - Overt Behaviour​s: put babies in a task where we can measure the natural behaviour they can do (ex. sucking) - Newborns imitate facial expressions - Newborn language preferences - Looking Preferences​: visual system of children develops early, so we can measure where and for how long the baby looks → can guess what they are thinking - Face Preference Study: recognizing face in objects or not - Habituation: they recognize changes or not by showing same pictures until they get bored and same in the sudden and measure looking time - Searching and Foraging​: we can use natural behaviour of foraging for crawling and walking babies - Toddlers remember up to three objects - Embedding Games:​ we can create tasks that seem to be games and capitalize on children’s gravitation towards playing and toys. Prenatal Development​:​ aspects of development that occur from conception to birth - Babies are​ psychologically active​ ​in the womb - Things can go wrong in the womb that affect development of baby 1. Germinal Stage​: period of prenatal development that emcompasses the​ first 2 weeks after conception - Zygote: fertilized by a sperm -Blastocyst: zygotic cells attached to uterus 2. Embryonic Stage​: prenatal development between​ 2-8 weeks after conception 3. Fetal Stage​: ​8-9 weeks Myelination​: formation of a fatty sheath around the axons of a neuron in Brain development process Teratogens​:​ chemical agents that impair or alter prenatal development (ex. tobacco) Underdeveloped Brain? - Huge head - Develop with environments after birth Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)​: disorder caused by exposure to ethanol alcohol during prenatal period through placenta - Common symptoms: low body weight, distinctive facial features, brain damage - Effects of alcohol differ during different developmental stages and amount - Worst in embryonic stage that damages the organs Williams Syndrome (WS)​: ​rare neurodevelopmental disorder caused by deletion of about 26 genes on chromosome 7 - Symptoms: changes in facial appearance, coupled with visuo-spatial abilities (ex. navigation) while leaving language and social abilities untouched - Domain specific: while spatial abilities are profoundly affected, language and social skills are completely spared. Perceptual Development​: development of children’s ability to perceive objects, faces and especially language - Perceptual Narrowing:​ gradual fine-tuning of perceptual abilities that were previously broad through experience and exposure to the world (learning what to focus and what to ignore) - Own-Species Effect​: young babies can distinguish human or non-human faces apart while older infants can only differentiate human faces + Older babies only differentiate the sounds of their own language while young babies can differentiate all of the sounds. - Own-Race Effect: ​babies increasingly struggle to differentiate faces of ethnicities they are not familiar with. - Sensitive periods​: period when exposure has the biggest effect has biggest effect - Accents: 9-12 years old Motor Development​: development of children’s bodies and their motor control, especially crawling and walking. - Reflexes: - Rooting reflex: turning head towards touch - Sucking reflex: suck when mouth is touched - Stepping reflex: alternating leg when foot touches ground - Cephalocaudal rule​: top to bottom rule in development - Proximodistal rue​: inside to outside rule in development - Posture-Specific Learning:​ babies start learning about depth and danger anew every time they learn a new form of motion - Kitty Carousel Experiment​: one kitten can move, the other one can’t. “Active kitten” showed visual normal responses like blinking and visually tracking something moving while the “passive kitten” couldn’t. - Infants that have already been crawling show appropriate head movement and fear of the cliff while pre-crawling infants do not, suggesting they have not yet learned to appropriately perceive motion and depth. Piaget:​ ​Children Develop in Stages - Each stage determines the kinds of thoughts and behaviours a child is capable of - Each stage is better than the lat and leads more mature thinking - Stages​ always go in order - A change from one stage into the next is​ sudden, not gradual - Children move through stages with maturity and there is little we can do to accelerate stage progression - Sensorimotor (0-2) → Preoperational (2-6) → Concrete Operational (6-11) → Formal Operational (+11) 1. Sensorimotor Stage:​ complete absence of abstract thoughts - only things in their minds are what they can perceive and their own body - knowledge is conceptualized and gained through immediate perceptual and motor experiences only -​ Object Permanenc​e:​ knowledge that is something can’t be seen it continues to exist → absence in sensorimotor stage (out of sight→ it’s gone: A-not-B task) -​ Schema​: organized bit of knowledge about how the world works -​ Assimilation​: integrating new information into an existing schema -​ Accommodation​: changing or making new schemas once new information is known 2. Preoperational Stage​: children understand objects and events, but still struggle to think about the minds of others or to really understand the world in logical ways. - Failure of logical reasoning → preoperational children continue to be fixated by their perception - Conservation: ​ability for children to logically reason that quantity of an object is the same despite changes in the object’s appearance - Volume task/ Number task 3. Concrete Operational Stage: ​capable of basic logical thinking while more abstract things still elude them - Understanding reversibility - Rule task: ​children focus on the reality of the situation, not on what would logically happen if the rule was true. 4. Formal Operational Stage​: fully capable of logical and abstract thinking and no longer dominated by their own perceptions or intuitions about the world. *Children’s Tasks as Games, Stages, Perception to Logic* Egocentrism​:​ failure to understand what the world appears differently to different people Modern Theories contrasts on Piaget’s approach on tasks, stages and logic. a. Tasks and Games - Young children can’t control their motor movements - Leading questions gives invalid answers b. Stage Development - Domain-Specificity: children develop some complex abilities incredibly quick but other ones incredibly slowly. - Cross-Cultural affects: Children’s development is not identical across cultures. c. Early Abstractions - Children can go beyond their perception and use logical thinking much earlier than we ever expected. (ex. Solve for X Experiment) Attachment​: earliest emotional and social bond that forms between newborn infants and their primary caregivers. - Food and safety, learning, comfort and emotional support - Wire Mother Experiments​: - Monkeys can choose one of two mothers: wire mother who gave food but no warmth and cloth mother who gave warmth and comfort but no food. - Baby monkeys strongly prefer the cloth mother and only go to the wire mother to feed. - Harlow’s experiment - Monkeys run to the cloth mother as a home base - Monkeys raised in isolation would ignore other monkeys and showed disturbed behaviours - Romanian Orphanages: young children who couldn’t get enough care → less affection to caregivers and show significantly dysfunctional behaviour Strange Situations: ​behavioural test that examines how child is attached to their caregivers - Secure Attachment (60%):​ notice leaving and show distress (sure how caregiver responds) - Avoidant Attachment (20%)​: not upset with leaving and doesn’t care of coming back (sure how caregiver will ignore) - Ambivalent/Resistant/Anxious Attachment (15%):​ very upset when caregiver leaves and still angry when they come back (unsure what caregiver will do) - Disorganized Attachment (5%):​ no consistent pattern - Temperament:​ characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity including tendencies towards irritability, fearfulness, loud noises, new people - Internal working model of relationship:​ beliefs about self, the primary caregiver, and relationship between them - Parenting style / Mother’s sensitivity or responsiveness - Theory of Mind: ​ability to represent the beliefs and desires of people who are not you - False Belief/ Sally-Anne Task​: children younger than 4.5 years do not appear able to represent a view that’s not their own - Only 20% of Autism Spectrum Disorders pass Sally-Anne Task even if they are older than 4.5 years. - Recent: Sally-Anne is hard! Easier conditions shows better TOM! Morality - Innately evil, innately good or no preferences and they have to learn everything - Moral Reasoning​: thinking process by which we decide whether something is a moral or immoral behaviour. - Piaget:​ ​realism to relativism, prescriptions to principles and outcomes to intentions - Kohlberg’s Theory​: children progress through morality stages that is better and more advanced form of moral reasoning alike Piaget. - The Heinz Dilemma​: Should Heinz have stolen drug for wife or not? 1. Obedience and Punishment: No punishment (PRE) 2. Individualism and Exchange: Needs (PRE) 3. Interpersonal Relationships: Social roles (CON) 4. Maintenance Social Order: Follow rules (CON) 5. Social Contract: Agreed-up standards of society (POST) 6. Universal Principles: Own justice (POST) - Problems: - Only relevant for Western men - Inconsistency - Reasoning is not morality - Modern: Children’s Action/ Morality in Infancy - Helper/Hinderer Infant Experiment​: - Infants show strong preference for the helper puppet Adolescence and Aging Puberty​: physical and psychological changes associated with sexual maturity - Primary Sexual Characteristics:​ directly involved in reproduction, including testes - Secondary Sexual Characteristics:​ change in puberty (ex. Hair growth) - Infant’s brain forms many more new synapses than it actually needs → clever system that allows the brain’s wiring to be determined in part by its experience in the world. (early period of synaptic proliferation followed by synaptic pruning which connections that are not frequently used are eliminated.) - Cause of Puberty: - Leptin: proper nutrition and diet - DHEA: hormone building testosterone and estrogen - Xenoestrogens​: synthetic hormone that emulates the effect of estrogen and can be found in improperly treated food - Prefrontal Cortex​: decision-making and risk-taking - Rapidly develops at the onset of puberty - Non fully developed → impulsivity problem - Delay of Gratification: ​ability to control one’s impulses and temptation of an immediate reward for a later one. (hard w/o fully developed prefrontal cortex) - Marshmallow Test:​ can wait → later success → high IQ - Teens who don’t delay gratification - High chance to try drugs - Lower grades and behaviour problems - Formation of stereotypes​: gender stereotypes by 3-4 years old - Transgenderism​: own gender identity develop before puberty - Biology has major impact - Parent Gender Role Experiment: - Mother’s explicit beliefs on gender roles predict children’s - Father’s implicit beliefs on gender roles predict girl’s - Equal distribution of household chores → girls more likely to work outside and have less female-stereotypical occupation Marriage Satisfaction Study​: having children decreases marital satisfaction Motor Skills​: motor control starts to get worse after 30 Perceptual Skills​: retinas and cochleas both start to lose sensitivity Menopause​: end of menstruation Cognitive Change​: slow cognitive speed, decreasing working memory and episodic memory but procedural and semantic memory doesn’t change​! - Dementia:​ diseases that reduce ability to think, remember, speak and control emotion - Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI):​ first stage of dementia - Not natural part of aging - Alzheimer’s Disease​: most common dementia; loss of working and episodic memory - Affect entire b
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