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PSYC 102 Book Definitions Final.docx

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PSYC 102
Toni Schmader

PSYC 102 Book Definitions 01/04/2013 18:00:00 - CH13 p512 - Personality An individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting Psychodynamic theories View personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of child hood Free association In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing Psychoanalysis Freud‟s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions. Unconscious According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thought, wishes, feelings and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware. ID A reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The ID operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification Ego The largely conscious, executive art of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principles, satisfying the id‟s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain Superego The part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement and for future aspirations Psychosexual stages The childhood stages of development during which the id‟s pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones Oedipus complex According to Freud, a boy‟s sexual desires toward his mother and feeling of jealousy and hatred for the rival father Identification The process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents‟ values into their developing superegos Fixation A lingering focus of pleasure seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved Defence mechanism In psychoanalytic theory, the ego‟s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality Repression In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defence mechanism hat banishes anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings and memories from consciousness Collective unconscious Carl Jung‟s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history Projective test A personality test, such as the Rorschach, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one‟s inner dynamics Rorschach inkblot test Them most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach, seeks to identify people‟s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots Terror-management theory A theory of death-related anxiety, explores people‟s emotional and behavioural responses to reminders of their impending death Humanistic theories View personality with focus on the potential for healthy personal growth Self-Actualization According to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved, the motivation to fulfil one‟s potential Unconditional positive regard According to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person Self-concept All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “who am I?” Trait A characteristic pattern of behaviour or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports Personality inventory A questionnaire n which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range feelings and behaviour; used to asses selected personality traits Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to indentify emotional disorders, this test is no used for many other screening purposes Empirically derived test A test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups Social-cognitive perspective Views behaviour as influenced by the interaction between people‟s traits and their social context Reciprocal determinisms The interaction influences of behaviour, internal cognition and environment Personal control The extent to which we perceive control over our environment External locus of control The perception that change or outside force beyond our personal control determine our fate Internal locus of control The perception that you control your own fate Self-control The ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards Learned Helplessness The helplessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events Self In contemporary psychology, assumed to be the centre of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions Spotlight effects Overestimating others‟ noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance and blunders Self-esteem One‟s feelings of high or low self-esteem Self-serving bias A readiness to perceive oneself favourably Narcissism Excessive self-love and self-absorption -CH14 p552 – Social psychology The scientific study of how we thin about influence, and relate to one another Attribution theory The theory that we explain someone‟s behaviour by crediting either the situation or the person‟s disposition Fundamental attribution error The tendency for observers, when analyzing another‟s behaviour, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition Attitude Feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events Peripheral route persuasion Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker‟s attractiveness Central route persuasion Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favourable thoughts Foot-in-the-door phenomenon The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request Role A set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave Cognitive dissonance theory The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. For example, when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes Conformity Adjusting our behaviour or thinking to coincide with a group standard Normative social influence Influence resulting from a person‟s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval Informational social influence Influence resulting from one0s willingness to accept others‟ opinions about reality Social facilitation Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others Social loafing The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable Deindividuation The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity Group polarization The enhancement of a group‟s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group Groupthink The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives Prejudice A unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings and a predisposition to discriminatory action Stereotype A generalized belief about a group of people Discrimination Unjustifiable negative behaviour toward a group and its members Just-world phenomenon The tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get Ingroup Us – people with whom we share a common identity Outgroup Them – those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup Ingroup bias The tendency to favour our own group Scapegoat theory The theory that prejudice offer an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame Other-race effect The tendency to recall faces of one‟s own race more accurately than faces of others races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias Aggression Any physical or verbal behaviour intended to hurt or destroy Frustration-aggression principle The principle that frustration – the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goat – creates anger, which can generate aggression Social script Culturally modelled guide for how to act in various situations Mere exposure effect The phenomenon that repeats exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them Passionate love An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually resent at the beginning of a love relationship Companionate love The deep affectionate attachment we fell for those with whom our live are intertwined Equity A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it Self-Disclosure Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others Altruism Unselfish regard for the welfare of others Bystander effect The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present Social exchange theory The theory that our social behaviour is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs Recipricity norm An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those whom have helped them Social-responsibility norm An expectation that people will help those dependent upon them Conflict A perceived incompability of a
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