chapter 9 notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 102
Professor
Delroy Paulhus

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CHAPTER 9 NOTES Note that from the notes for correlation coefficient ( R ) R = +1.00 perfect, -1.00 is perfect reverse, .00 these are based on the association between 2 traits In a typical personality study -questionnaire to large number of people, all asked to rate themselves on a list of traits, then calculate the pair of traits. ( note that .65 or .75 means correlated) -literary part is to find the right name for the set of traits (cluster) in factor, as for the math part is to determine the number of factors in the correlation matrix. Problem with these is too static(not changing), implies rigidly(same), and minimal theory(not complicated) Qualities inAgood test 1. Reliablity a. Score consistentcy(test retest) b. Internal consistency (test what is needed, to test same thing) c. Between judge consistency(ratings of behaviors, such as most/least aggressive) Typical test retest relialibities -after six months, personality tests .70-.85, intel tests .85-.95, height with tape measure .98 2. Validity- does it measure what its supposed to? 1. content validity-what you claim its measuring 2. predictive validity 3.construct validity Such as what is a good driver?(concept? Criterion?) 2. Standardization a. Ensures fair comparison i. Evaluate if they have a high/low score b. Norms based on large samples i. The creation of average Susceptible to faking? 1. Personality tests a. Can fake good/bad(easily) i. Prevention by non obvious choices 2. Intellegience tests a. Cant fake good(cause its your ability) The 4 main problems in tests(that mess up validity) 1. Social desirability, by faking to be norm 2. Acquiescent reponse, to say yes 3. Extreme responding, to report by the ends of scales 4. Random responding, to quickly get over it INTELLIGENCE A. How to CONCEPTUALIZE? This must be done, or you cant measure it, there are 3 ways of doing this. Btw the conceptualizing is PSYCHOMETRICS- use to psych tests to measure the mind, esp. individual differences 1. Spearman’s invention of factor analysis- a stat procedure made to determine many correlated items in a larger test, useful for summarizing the subset under a single name. a. Factor g- general intel (scholastic, quantitative, verbal, useful) b. Factor s(specific residual s)- special talents(music, mechanical) 2. From factor analysis Thurstone primary mental abilities, 7 distinct factors(primary mental factors), verbal comphrension, verbal fluency, numerial ability, spatial, memory, perceptual speed and problem solving. 3. Hierachcal models of intel, a synthesis of both 1 and 2, in which there is a break between fluid intel(natural ability to solve problems, reasoning, remember, not exp based), and crystalized intel(knowledge through experience, through culture and school etc.) B. COGNITIVEAPPROACH 1. MENTAL SPEED 2. COMPONENTANALYSIS(analysis of specific mental operations that make intel thought) Where you measure the brain speed P100 delay(peak in milisec) and varies. Difference is that if you are faster than p100, you score higer r=-.16(negative correlation), longer delay, longer time, faster is better IQ
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