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University of British Columbia
PSYC 102

Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky Psychology 102 First Lecture Introduction to Developmental, Social, Clinical, and Personality Psychology Announcements:  Course Teaching Assistant: Alexis May  Office hours: to be announced   Syllabus: available on the Vista course page Important Syllabus Sections to Review Homework: Read syllabus for next class  Contact information  Midterm exam dates  Grading policy  Research experience component Textbook: th  Required: Psychology 10  Edition th  You are allowed to use the Canadian edition or 9  edition, but you are responsible for  covering the material in the 10  edition if there is any difference Human Subject Pool   As a part of the course requirements, students need to complete a research experience  component. One option is to serve as participants for psychology department studies.   You can learn up studies and sign up at For more details, see the  syllabus. What is Psychology? Some different ways to consider psychology:  Scientific study of behavior and mental processes  Scientific study of how people think, feel, and act  Can involve four processes: describe, explain, predict, and control  Different levels of analysis: analyze genes, neurons, individuals, groups, communities, or  societies  Different methods: questionnaires, interviews, clinical trials, etc.  Psychological Knowledge  In this class you will learn to think like a psychologist  How do we know what we know, and how do we know what we don’t know? Example:  Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky  An Internet article claims that half of Americans who are depressed do not receive  treatment. How do we know this claim is true?   Challenges with supporting the claim: o What is the definition of depression? o What is the best way to test depression?  o America has millions of people—impossible to test them all.   Hypothetical study:  Start with a small sample size and try to find a way to represent the country  proportionally  Try to find out the number of people (in the sample size) who are depressed  How many depressed people are receiving treatment  It can be quite difficult to conduct studies that accurately support psychological  claims.  Media headlines and generalizations about studies are not always trustworthy.  Human Reasoning is Flawed  Our brains are not as smart as we think they are Example 1:  Susie has anxiety. She scores 8/10 on an anxiety test. She goes through 8 weeks of  therapy. She scores 4/10 on the anxiety test afterwards. Did the therapy work?  It is tempting to conclude that the therapy is effective, but this is potentially not true.  Potential problems: o We do not know when the second test is taken exactly. It does not demonstrate  that the anxiety decreased in the long term. o People’s anxiety fluctuates over time, so her anxiety levels might change naturally  regardless of therapy. o Regression to the mean: People often take actions when their state (such as  anxiety) is at its most extreme, before it would decrease. As a result, the decrease  in anxiety might not be caused by therapy. o The situation surrounding the anxiety test and the nearby environment might  affect the test results.  Using control groups can help make the study more accurate. Example 2:  The professor considered using The Activator Method of Chiropractic Care to reduce  pain after an accident. He decided not to and got better over time. If he had employed that  method, he might have accidentally assumed that the improvement is caused by the  method.   Personal experience is not always reliable as evidence. Example 3: Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky  Imagine that there is an African Eucalyptus Extract for Chronic Depression. Some people  share it on a talk show, and if there were 10 million viewers and 2% were depressed,  there might be 20,000 people who try the extract. A small percentage of these people  might get over their depression and believe the extract is effective. This can lead people  into wrongly thinking it works and have seriously negative consequences.   Testimony from other people are not fully trustworthy. Examples 4:  A study finds that stressful life events happen often when people are depressed.  Researchers might be tempted to draw a conclusion that the depression causes stressful  life events, but this is not necessarily true.   Different interpretations: o Stressful life events cause depression o Depression causes stressful life events o Maybe there is a third unknown factor like anxiety that causes both.  Correlation does not mean causation.  Homework reminder: Read the syllabus for next class Psychology 102 Lecture 2 Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky Review of Lecture 1  Personal experience and anecdotes from others are limited  We tend to recognize patterns based on personal experience and biases, even when none  exists Confirmation Bias  We often see information that aligns with what we agree with and ignore what we don’t  agree with o   E.g. 1 Death penalty survey: people were asked to answer a survey about death penalty  and rate their level of agreement, then given balanced info, and surveyed again. Their  response to the second survey did not become more balanced, but rather became more  extreme.  o   E.g. 2 Study of psychiatrists: psychiatrists were videotaped while examining patients.  The surveyors noted that the psychiatrists made conclusions within the first few minutes  and generally did not change their view afterwards.  Can we trust authority figures?  One study isn’t enough by itself  Media reports can’t be trusted o Football coaches believe that “ice the kicker” works because of personal experience,  but statistically it doesn’t make any difference o A Greek scholar saw the meteor and thought the order of nature changed as a result, but  he did not conduct any experiment. o People used to study the shape of people’s skulls to learn about their intelligence, but it  is irrelevant.  Scientific Method  Human thinking about complex things is often inaccurate  The Scientific Method is a more reliable alternative to address flaws in human thinking 1. Objective observation, logically necessary to conclude: o Something that exists beyond opinion o Can be replicated (like a survey) o Researchers do not conclude more than what’s logical 2. Parsimonious o  When there are several ways to predict the results with equal accuracy, choose  the most efficient explanation 3. Independent replication o One study must be replicable  4. Skepticism o We should question how people know what they know, and how they know it. 5. Careful designs  The experiment should be carefully designed, with control groups and careful  measuring. Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky 6. Falsifiability  Has to be testable  7. Open­minded  Balance between skepticism and open­mindedness.  Psychology 102 Lecture 3 Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky Three types of scientific research 1) Descriptive  Case studies: examines individuals in­depth, can show possibilities but also  might mislead  Naturalistic observations: records people’s behaviors in the natural  environment, can reveal information.  Surveys: look at many responses in less depth, but also depends on wording of  questions and the subject pool (choose careful wording, and a representative  subject pool) 2) Correlation   Correlational ratio: numbers between 1 and 4 measures the correlational  relationship  Identify how two things relate  ** But correlation does not equal causation 3) Experiment  Try to 1) manipulate factors of interest and 2) control the rest  Have an experiment group and a matching control group to control for factors  like optimism  Participants are randomly assigned to groups  ** Differs from correlational research by manipulating factors rather than uncover  natural correlational relationships. ** Only the experiment type of research can help examine cause and effect  relationships.  Variables 1) Independent variable  The variables that are the focus of the study  Researchers manipulate these variables and see how they affect the dependent  variables  E.g. “Treatment outcome research” in PSYC  people test dependent variables affected by certain medicine.  Two conditions: experimental condition (people treated) and control  condition (people given a placebo)  Both groups appear to be given treatment  Double Blind Randomized Control Trial/Study  The best study standards  Three parts: o Controlled: has a control group o Randomized: participants randomly selected o Double blind: both the evaluator and participants are blind and do not whether  they’re in the experimental or controlled group Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky Statistics   Stats can be very useful in helping people find patterns  2 categories: 1) Descriptive Statistics: describing data a. Measure of central tendency: good summary of data  Measures averages: mean (math average), mode (number that appears  most often), medium (the midpoint). ** A few outliers can distort the  mean. b. Measure of variation: amount of variation in data  Can measure the range (difference)  Standard deviation (average amount of deviation)  Consider how far the data strays from normal distribution: a common  distribution follows the bell curve; some data follow it closer, while some  are skewed 2) Inferential Statistics  a. Get some sample data and use it to make inferences  When can we be confident about stats?  When we work with a larger sample  When we work with a representative rather than biased sample  Less variability o Alpha level (the threshold of chance where the data is inaccurate) is less than a  certain amount. E.g. p  - How do we relate to one another>? - Prejudice: o An unjustifiable attitude towards a group and its members - Three components: o Cognition: Beliefs (stereotypes) o Emotions: hostility/envy/fear o Action: Predispositions to act (discrimination) - Example: o Black motorists are disproportionately pulled over o Believe that immigrants are a bad influence o Belief that marriage between people from different ethnic backgrounds Causes of Prejudice 1. Social Inequality o Money, power, and prestige can lead to prejudice o Prejudice rationalizes inequality o E.g. ignorant slaves, lazy poor people 2. Social Divisions o Ingroup: people with whom you share a common identity. o Outgroup: Those perceived as different from one’s ingroup o Ingroup Bias: The tendency to favor one’s own groups. 3. Emotional Roots of Prejudice a. Scapegoating: minorities are often blamed for problem Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky 4. Cognitive roots of prejudice o One way we simplify our world is to categorize. We categorize people into groups by stereotyping them. - Implicit Prejudice o Some people are reluctant to admit prejudice on a survey, or have a disconnect between behavior and feelings o Implicit Association Test  White respondents take longer to identify pleasant words (peace, paradise) as “good” when paired with black faces rather than white faces. - Just World Phenomena o The belief that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get o Leads to blaming victims of prejudice - Physical or verbal behaviors intended to hurt or destroy - Three factors influence how aggressive people are 1. Genetic: Half of it influenced by parents 2. Neural: factors in the brain 3. Biochemical: adrenaline, hormonal, testosterone Psychology of Aggression - Aversive events pts: generally caused by negative events. - Learning: watching kids fight, aggressive parents, etc., and the consequences of the aggression - Observing Models: observing other people’s aggression and how they are treated - Social Scripts: media encouragement of certain behaviors, such as boyfriends getting aggressive Do Video Games Teach or Release Violence? - Media believes that violent video games cause violence - There is a correlation, but evidence suggest mostly that violent people like violent video games, and less evidence that video games make people more violent Psychology 102 Social Psychology (continued) and Personality Conflict Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky  a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas  Social Trap: A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior  E.g. A Game of Social Trap: illustrates social trap Psychology of Attraction  What predicts attraction? 1. Proximity  More Exposure Effect 2. Physical Appearance  Walster et al. (1966)—Bind Date Study  Seen as happier, healthier, more sensitive, more successful, more socially skilled 3. Similarity  Attitudes, beliefs, interests, ages, religions, ethnicities, education, intelligence, smoking behavior, economic status.  Birds of a feather lock together, opposites retract Romantic Love Two categories - Passionate Love o An aroused state o Two Factors: Theory of Emotion  Physical arousal  Cognitive appraisal of arousal (can be incorrect) o Role of Misattribution Theory ** Different from Fundamental Attribution Error  E.g. Get coffee (rather than milkshake), exciting intense movie, collaborative activity - Companionate Love o A deep affection we feel for people with whom our lives become entwined. o Two things that relate to compassionate love:  Equity: balance of roles and views, equal responsibilities, etc.  Self-disclosure people are more open and sharing their feelings. ** Relation doesn’t mean causation Why do we help? - Social Exchange Theory: exchange - Reciprocity Norm: people’s belief that what goes around comes around Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky - Social Responsibility Norm: people with power and resources are expected to help people - Bystander Effect: We are less likely to give help if other bystanders are around o Can be considered from the perspective of Social Loafing or Informational Conformity Peacemaking: How to Make Peace?  Superfluous goals: Shared goals that override differences and  Communication: understanding through talking to one another New Unit: Personality - Both situation and personality matter, although situation affects us a bit more Personality - An individual’s characteristics: their characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and action. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective - First theory on personality - Very famous - Scientifically unproven - The Unconscious: the part of our mind that contains thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are unaware. - Personality Structure o Conscious mind o Pre-conscious: can be accessed I you think about it carefully o Unconscious: cannot be grasped directly o Id: “pleasure principle”, unconscious energy, secret desire, most primitive o Ego: “reality” principle, part in the conscious that navigates reality, makes peace between id and superego o Superego: “conscience”, internalized ideals, sense of morality - Personality Development: psychosexual stages o 0-18 months: oral stage, pleasure enters on the mouth o 18-36 months: anal stage, pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination, coping with demands for control o 3-6 years: flax stage, pleasure zone is the genitals, coping with incestuous sexual feelings o 6 to puberty: latency stage, a phase of dormant sexual feelings o Puberty onwards: genital stage, maturation of sexual interests Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky - Oedipus Complex: reflects boys’ tendency to desire his mother - Electra Complex: A girl’s desire for her father Psychology 102 Lecture 8 Personality (Continued) Announcements - Exam: o Covers everything up to the exanimation date on the syallbus o Bolded, italicized term, special boxes or figures o Bring student ID and pencil Defense Mechanisms - Reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality - Repression: banishes anxiety by concealing [inc] - Reaction Formation: switches unconscious impulses into the opposite - Projection: leads people to disguise their own feelings (inc) Other Psychoanalysts - Carl Jung o In addition to our individual unconscious, there is a larger one o Collective Unconscious: contains images derived from our species’ universal experience - Alfred Adler o Emphasized social rather than sexual - Karen Horney o First women psychologist o Countered Freud’s idea that women and infants have weaker superegos Projective Tests - Projective Personality Tests: people project their personality - Thematic Apperception Test: people express their personality through - Rorschach’s Inkblot Test test::most widely used, people express their personality through their inkblots - Interprets o Form (how common): can inflate scores for schizophrenia o Color: can inflate scores for things like depression o Use of details/white space: more pathological scores o Motion ** Special categories: pair/reflection, humans/animals, morbid Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky - Projective Test Problems o Reliability: consistency—different psychologists could score it differently o Validity: accuracy—measures of certain traits or disorders don’t connect o Normal population would test pathological o Not very helpful, yet overused and overvalued Evaluating Psychoanalysis - Criticism: o Not developed through science o Many premises are not testable o Many testable premises have been scientifically refused (e.g. repression) o General idea of unconsciousness is right - In Defense of Psychoanalysis o The scientific legacy of Sigmund Freud toward a psychoanalytically informed psychological science  Drew Westen, Psychological Bulletin (1998) Humanistic Perspective - Unlike Freud, focused on positive potential of people - Self-Actualization: the process of fulfilling human potential - Abraham Maslow: Hierarchy of Needs o Physiological needs, safety needs, belonging needs, esteem needs, and self- actualization at the top - Carl Rogers: Person-Centered Perspective o Everyone has potential for self-actualization o Unconditional Positive Regard: acceptance of others regardless of their failings o Approach:  Acceptance of what the client says  Empathy  Reflective listening  Non-directive - Critique Humanistic Concepts: o Vague and subjective e.g. self-actualization o Many concepts lack scientific basis - However, using these skills do generally lead to better outcomes for the client - Influential in therapy, education, counseling, child-rearing and management Trait Perspective - Trait: a characteristic pattern of behavior, disposition to feel and act, stable over time - Personality Inventories - True or false - Self-report questionnaires Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MNPI) Test - Developed around 1900s - Updated and still used today - Imperially derived ** Popular test question Psychology Lecture 9 Personality (continued) Trait Assessment Tests - Two approaches to create the test: o Rational approach:  decide which things measure a certain trait like extraversion o Empirical approach:  have two groups that are introverts or extroverts, then give a very long list of questions for people to answer, and identify the questions where introverts and extroverts answer most differently. These become the scales for extroversion/introversion.  MNPI is the best known empirically-derived approach - Discovering Traits o Factor Analyses: a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person’s total score.  Example: • I am dependable. • I am a people person. • I am honest. • People say I am reliable. • I like parties. • People describe me as outgoing.  Correlations in the example: • Gather information in factor analysis • Dependable, honest, reliable • People person, liking parties, and being outgoing - Factor Analysis in Practice: o Several hundred questions o Representing numerous possible traits o Administered to very large samples of people o Factors of correlated items (choosing factors and naming traits become more subjective) - Fundamental Traits in Personality: o Introversion-extroversion Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky o Emotional stability-instability Modern View: Big Five Factors of Personality - Acronym CANOE: o Conscientiousness: organized, careful, vs. disorganized, careless o Agreeability: soft-hearted, trusting vs. suspicious, cruel o Neuroticism: even-tempered, self-satisfied vs. moody, frustrated, unconfident o Openness: imaginative, wants variety, independent vs. more conforming, wants routines o Extroversion: sociable, affectionate vs. sober, reserved - Converging research about the traits: o How reliable are they? Personality traits are stable, unlike mood, which changes. o How heritable? Half of the traits are genetic o Across cultures? Consistently found across cultures. o Can they predict other personal attributes? They work well as predictors. - Big Five Measures: o Big Five Inventory (questionnaire) o NEO-PI (questionnaire) o SIFFM Interview (Structured Interview: Five-Factor Model) ** Different number of questions Person-Situation Controversy - Walter Michel credited with saying that both traits matter. - Situations change all the time, but people’s personality remain stable across time and situations - Should Mood Affect Personality? o Will mood affect how people express personality questionnaires? o If so, how? o How can we study this? - Situations: can be potential behavior at a time - Traits: predictor of typical behavior across periods of time - Social-Cognitive Perspective: o Albert Bandura o Situations and personality can influence each other  Different people choose different environments, which in turn influence you. E.g. School environment and music.  Personality shapes our reactions to environments. E.g. Anxious people might react differently compared to calmer people.  Personality shapes situations. Locus of Control - Attitude towards the control. - External: outside forces determine your fate. Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky - Internal: we can control our own fate. PSYC 102 Lecture 10 Intelligence Class Exercise - Scientific thinking, critical thinking, theory and measure development - Defining Intelligence: The ability to memorize, learn, critically think, and utilize knowledge to apply them successfully in different contexts. - Different Tests: Maze navigation test, Simple Memory test, Logic (problem analysis and word problem) - How to Tell Its Accuracy: o Validate o Correlation: to other things like GPA, etc. o Correlate with informative reports o Rocket scientists vs. non-rock scientists, income, prestige, socio-economic status How Good is a Test? 1) Good Definition 2) Good measurement 3) Testing: a. Reliability (consistency): with multiple tests b. Valid (accurate): how valid it is c. Uni/multidimensional: Are we measuring different things Other Definitions of Intelligence - The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations. - In research, intelligence is whatever the intelligence test measures. - Intelligence is a concept, not a thing. - Error of reification o Example: good cars, athleticism. Early Conceptualizations - Henry H. Goddard o Considered words like moron, imbecile, idiot o Believe families had different intelligence levels o Early champion of standardized tests Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky - Charles Spearman o Different intellectual abilities represent single underlying factor of intelligence - L. L. Thurstone o Several clusters of primary mental abilities  Mental comprehension  Word fluency  Spatial ability  Perceptual speed  Numerical ability  Inductive reasoning  Memory PYSC 102 Lecture 11 Intelligence (Continued) Reminder about Exam - This Thursday, during class - 50 m/c - Bring pencil and ID Modern Conceptualization of Intelligence - Howard Gardner (eight types of intelligence) o Verbal skills o Math skills o Spatial skills o Memory skills o Musical skills o Insight about self o Insight about others - Robert Sternberg (arguably one of the most influential) o Analytical Intelligence: accessed by intelligence tests o Creative Intelligence: adapting to novel situations, generating novel ideas o Practical intelligence: required for everyday tasks e.g. street smarts) - Emotional Intelligence o The ability to perceive, understand, and use emotions (Peter Salovey) o Emotional intelligence  Perceive emotion: ability to recognize emotions in others  Understand emotion: predict emotions Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky  Manage emotion: express emotions in different situations  Use emotion: utilize emotions to adapt or be creative ** Is this really intelligence? - Creativity o The ability to produce ideas that are new and valuable o Correlates moderately with intelligence - Brain Size and Intelligence o Recent studies indicate correlation of 0.4 - Processing Speed and Intelligence o Empirically has some correlation to intelligence Assessing Intelligence: - assess mental aptitudes and compare them with others using numerical scores - The origin of intelligence testing: o Alfred Binet’s tests - The Stanford Binet Test o First IQ test=(Mental age/Chronological age) x100 o Very good for testing the intelligence of children - Modern Tests of Mental Abilities o Aptitude (ability) and achievement (what you have learned) o Somewhat linear relationship - Modern Tests for Mental Abilities o Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)  Overall intelligence  Around 11 aspects related to intelligence o Wechsler Intelligent Scale for Children (WISC) Principles of Test Construction: - 3 criteria for a test to be accurate - Standardization: establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern called the bell curve o Flynn Effect: In the past 60 years, intelligence scores have risen statistically by 27 points - Reliability: consistency o Split-half reliability: split test into halves and give to different people o Alternate forms: different versions of tests o Test-retest reliability: can test at multiple times o Inter-rater reliability: given test by different people - Validity: accuracy o Content validity: the test accurately reflects the definition o Predictive Validity: does your intelligence test predict results o Validity evidence: Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky  School grades = .5  Years of education = .5  High prestige populations = .5  Income = .4  Predictions remains over and above social economic status  Criminal activity = -.2 ** Avoid labeling validity simply as positive, negative, or nonexistent Gender Differences - Men are better at visual/spatial tasks - Women are better at verbal tasks Extreme Intelligence - Contrary to popular belief, people with high intelligence scores tend to be healthy, well- adjusted, and unusually successful Genetic Influences - Twins separated at birth have .7 correlation - Children adopted have .34 correlation with biological parents - 60% genetically determined, 40% environmentally genetic Schooling/Expectation Effects - Increased schooling and expectations affect their intelligence scores Psychology 102 Lecture 12 Motivation Motivation: A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.  1. Instinct Theory:  o Instinct: a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is  unlearned. Instinctual o Animals with hunger instinct, paternal or maternal instincts of animal o Strengths: consistent with animal literature o Weakness:   Need instinct to describe each behavior. Not very efficient.    Naming a behavior doesn’t explain it. Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky 2. Drive Reduction Theory: the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension  state (a drive) that motivates an organism to fill that need.  o With few exceptions, increased physiological need ­> increased psychological  tension o Pushed by need to reduce drives: Homeostasis, a tendency to maintain a balanced  or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as  blood glucose, around a particular level  E.g. Body’s temperature regulation system, managing thirst.   o Pulled by incentives: a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates  behavior. that cause physiologically aroused state and action  E.g. delicious food o Need + Incentive= Especially strong o Strength: this is a more efficient theory o Weakness:   Patterns of behavior that happen across humans and different species are  not well­explained by Drive Reduction Theory • E.g. curiosity and play o  Optimum Arousal  : We seek optimum arousal o Slight modification to drive­reduction theory: some motivational behavior  increase arousal rather than fulfill a need. o Too little: bored, so we want to raise it o Too much: we want to lower it 3. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Motives: o Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base  with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher­level safety  needs and then psychological needs become active.  o Physiological, survival, safety, social, esteem, self­actualization   **Focus on people rather than other animals  o Weakness:   Sometimes untrue, because people have starved themselves to make a  political statement.  Gaining and retaining mates, and parental offspring are also human  motives.  o Strength: provides a reasonable framework for thinking about motivation  o Ancel Keys’ Hierarchy of Motives study:   Half of the participants randomly assigned to eat only half of what they  normally eat  Noticeable loss in social activities, obsessed with food and food­related  scenes  “Nobody wants to kiss when they’re hungry” ­ Basic need and especially pronounced when unsatisfied Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky ­  Biology of Hunger  o Stomach contractions ­> increased hunger o Your brain measures body chemistry and resources like glucose (the form of  sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for  body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.) o Hypothalamus: neural area that influences eating, contains a part that increases  hunger and another part suppresses hunger  H­­ Monitors hunger­arousing hormones and reduce as necessary o Set point: the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly  set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered  metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.  o Regulate weight through:  Control food intake  Energy output  Basal metabolic rate: the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure.  o Some researchers believe heredity influences set point and body type, but others  see influence of slow changes and psychological factors.  ­  Psychology of Hunger : o Memory: people with amnesia who don’t remember eating might eat again. As  time passes, we anticipate eating and feel hunger.   o  Taste Preferences: Biology and Culture    What tastes good is influenced by many factors.  Generic and universal preference for sweet and salty foods  Different cultural preferences. People tend to avoid unfamiliar foods.   Hot climates  spicier food (perhaps because they inhibit the growth of  bacteria)  o  Situational Influences on Eating:    We eat more with others (social facilitation)  Bigger portions encourage eating more  Food variety stimulates eating  o Eating Disorders:: clinical psychology, people who eat less ­  Increased Obesity  o Slight obesity has some health risks, but significant obesity has huge effects o  Social Effects of Obesity   Obesity affects self­image and others’ treatment of you  Obese people are judged as less friendly and so on. Weight bias especially  strong against women.   Lower psychological well­being, increased depression.  o  Physiology of Obesity    Research challenge the view that they’re weak­willed or have personal  issues  Set point and metabolism:  Class: PSYC 102 006 Instructor: David Klonsky • Less food to maintain weight than to lose it (body conserve energy  after dropping below set point).  • Individuals also have diff. resting metabolism.    Genetic Factor: twin/adoption/family studies suggest obesity is affected by  complex genes  Food and Activity Factors:  • Sleep loss leads to more vulnerability to obesity and social  influence (friends).  • Increased food consumption and lower activity levels.  • Environmental impact evidenced by fattening world.  o  Losing Weight    Not easy to lose weight permanently  Dieters more likely to binge eat, 
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