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1 Psyc 208 Section 002 Dr. Rawn 26 February 2014 Midterm Exam Study Guide Topic 1: Successful Living and Learning (The satisfying life, research methods) Class Learning Objectives  Compare different definitions of happiness, and discuss why there are so many.  Differentiate positive psychology from social psychology. Scientific study of the personal qualities, life choices, life circumstances, and sociocultural conditions that promote a life well-lived, defined by criteria of happiness, physical and mental health, meaningfulness, and virtue.  Explain major methods used to create knowledge in psychology, including what we can conclude from them. Self-report Survey Correlation Experiments  Discuss the strengths and limitations of self-report measures, including ways they are validated. Strengths: Link to objective measures of the same idea, Informant reports Limitations: Vary depending on mood, Social desirability inflating, Person might not know Can only draw correlations (NO CAUSATION), They might be wrong  Derive appropriate conclusions from correlational, experimental, and multi-methods research studies. Positive affect condition more creative than control condition  Define what is a primary source in psychology, and find one online.  Drawing from the Hudson-Barr reading, give advice to someone about how to read an IMRD- style journal article. Readings Ch 3 The satisfying life and happiness (pp. 56-67)  Positive psychology? Everything that people do that makes them function in an optional and satisfying way.  Happiness o How do we define happiness? Hedonism and eudaimonism Important in doing research on happiness. Subjective well-being (SWB) Hedonic well-being (HWB) Psychological well-being (PWB) Eudaimonic well-being (EWB) o How do we measure happiness? Self-report: social desirability Correlations The validity of self-report: validity, peak-end rule, experience sampling methods  Key terms: positive psychology, satisfaction with life scale, subjective well-being, hedonic well- being, psychological well-being, eudaimonic well-being, self-help books, self-reports, social desirability, correlations, validity, experience sampling methods  Key studies: Harker & Keltner (2001) 2 Hudson-Barr (2004) How to read a research article  Introduction  Beginning at the end o Identifying the conclusions of the study  Back to the beginning o Introduction to the study  In the middle o Methods o Findings/results and data analysis  What does this article mean to you? o Clinical judgment  Practice your new skill  Key Terms: abstract, discussion, gap, subjects, reliability, validity, clinical judgment  Key Studies: N/A Psyc 208 Section 002 Dr. Rawn 26 February 2014 Topic 2: Successful Learning (Active learning, memory, learning styles, beliefs) Class Learning Objectives  Discuss claims that are made about learning styles. People can only learn in their preferred way, and if the teaching style doesn’t match that then they won’t learn.  Compare and contrast entity and incremental theories of self. 1.Methodological problems  Small matching effect (Sternberg et al., 1999) 2.Solid study, no relationship between visual learning style and way of learning words (Constantinidou & Baker, 2002) 3.Solid study methodologically, RA to computer “help screens” designed to match learning style, replicated findings, no effect  Summarize the research evidence and conclusions regarding learning styles. At present, these negative results, in conjunction with the virtual absence of positive findings, lead us to conclude that any application of learning styles in classrooms is unwarranted.  Describe key research findings on theories of self, especially with respect to academic performance. Psychological + physical Experiences that form basis of selfhood 1.Reflexive Consciousness 2.Interpersonal Being 3.Executive Function About intelligence(About expectations of acceptance or rejection) Component of Reflexive Consciousness experience of self Affects Executive Function experience of self  Discuss how beliefs impact interactions with yourself and others. Experimental group: Strong messages of change The brain can change, grow, develop with intellectual challenge Showed supporting evidence (control group: similar treatment without this message) 3 Typically: Action required Not just told it works Produce something: speech, letter  In a group, decide how to increase an incremental theory of self for a friend experiencing failure. Incremental self-theory Believing most basic qualities (e.g., intelligence, personality) can grow and change with effort, education Reflexive self (with implications for Executive Function) Self-efficacy Believing you can make it happen Believing you are able to organize and execute the actions needed to reach a specific goal  Practice effective learning using group discussion and non-traditional texts. Readings Ch 9 Active learning: What’s in it for you?  Self-assessment  What do active learners do? Read with the purpose of understanding and remembering. Reflect on information and think critically. Listen actively by taking comprehensive notes in an organized fashion. Know that learning involves more than simply putting in time. Get assistance when experiencing problems. Accept much of the responsibility for learning Question information.  Benefits of active learning Skill: you have the tools to handle the studying and learning demands placed on you. Will: you have the desire and motivation to follow through. Academic payoffs: active learning leads to higher grades increased time to pursue extracurricular and social activities, and, most importantly, gained knowledge. Psychological payoffs: active learning may even outweigh the academic benefits.  Four factors that influence active learning Motivation Background knowledge Ability to concentrate Benefits about knowledge and learning  The holistic nature of active learning Declarative knowledge Procedural knowledge Conditional knowledge  Key Terms: active learner, skill, will, texts, declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, conditional knowledge  Key Studies: N/A Ch 10 How you learn  Self-assessment  The role of memory: Two theories 4 The parts theory: sensory store, short-term memory(STM), chunk, LTM The levels of processing theory: maintenance rehearsal, elaborative rehearsal o The parts theory o The levels of processing theory  Stretching your memory Mnemonic devices Acronyms Imagery Method of Loci  The role of learning styles Visual learners Auditory learners Kinesthetic learners (also called tactile learners)  Using your senses to learn Visual learners Auditory learners Kinesthetic learners  Key Terms: sensory store, short-term memory, long-term memory, chunking, maintenance rehearsal, elaborative rehearsal, mneumonic devices, three commonly presumed learning styles  Key Studies: N/A Dweck (2008) Can personality be changed?  Abstract  Introduction  Self-theories: Beliefs about the malleability of personal attributes  Relationship beliefs: Expectations of acceptance or rejection  Small intervention, large impact  Impact of socialization and experience  Conclusion  Key Terms: beliefs, entity theory, incremental theory, self-theory Psyc 208 Section 002 Dr. Rawn 26 February 2014  Key Studies: Aronson, Fried, & Good (2002) university incremental theory intervention; Blackwell, Trzesniewski, & Dweck (2007) junior high school incremental theory intervention; Walton & Cohen (2007) acceptance intervention for African American students Topic 3: Successful Teams (Group dynamics, group cohesion) Class Learning Objectives  Compare and contrast how roles and norms affect group dynamics.  Use the stages of group development to predict what may happen in your team.  Apply the guidelines for effective group development to strategize how to build an effective team in this class and in the future.  Critically debate the pros and cons of groups in university.  Synthesize research and theory on group dynamics and cohesion to build an effective team.  Compare and contrast roles and norms, including examples and how they affect teams.  Define and generate examples of pluralistic ignorance.  Apply the idea of pluralistic ignorance to improve teamwork. 5  Define team cohesion and discuss examples of its major facets.  Compare social and task cohesion. Which one is more important in academic teams? Why?  Summarize the importance and correlates of cohesion.  Identify and discuss which correlates of cohesion are key candidates for intervention in academic teams.  Define social loafing and generate ideas for how to combat it.  Summarize Tuckman’s model of group development and recognize stages of group development in teams.  Describe the relationship between conflict and cohesion.  Compare the pros and cons of managing different types of conflict.  Summarize and generate examples of productive communication strategies. Readings Ch 8 Group dynamics (omit “exercises” and “field of group dynamics” sections)  Group dynamics and me  What is a group?  The importance of groups  Group structure o Roles: differentiation within groups o Norms: integration of members’actions  Creating productive groups  How to create an effective group  The development of groups over time  Key Terms: group dynamics, group, small group, aggregate, group orientation vs. individualistic orientation, role, role conflict, norms, reference group, pseudogroup, traditional work group, effective group, high-performance group, group performance curve, guidelines for effective groups, recurring phase theories, sequential stage theories  Key Studies: Milgram (1974) obedience to authority, Sherif (1
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