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pysch 208 notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 208
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Spring

Description
ChrisYueChiChenPSYC208NOTESV2compiledbyChrisYueChiChenthDecember420121ChrisYueChiChenthLECTURE1Sept72012NonotesIntroductorylecturethLECTURE2Sept102012Introduction1IntroductionaEvolutionchangeovertimeinorganicstructureorbehaviourchangeovertimeingenefrequencyiStructuralsimilaritiesiiFossilrecordiiiEmbryologicaldevelopmentivDNAbEvolutionbynaturalselectioniSpeciesarecreatediiSpeciesgoextinctiiiSpeciesarewelladaptedivSpeciessharesimilarities2DarwinianevolutionaPrinciplesofevolutioniVariationiiInheritanceiiiSelectionbArtificialSelectioniIntentionalbreedingforcertaintraitsoracombinationoftraitsiiExplainsdomesticationofplantsanimalscNaturalSelectioniSelectioncomesfromenvironmentiiExplainsspeciationextinctionadaptationdMostmutationsaredeleteriousandselectedoutnegativeselectionbutsomeareneutralandafewareactuallyadvantageouspositiveselection3SelectiontypesaStabilizingselection2ChrisYueChiCheniDecreasesvariabilityinpopulationenvironmentisstableandintermediateformsarefavouredbyselectionrisktakingbDirectionalselectioniEnvironmentisunstableandextremesatonetailofthedistributionarefavouredbyselectionegbrainsizecDisruptiveselectioniIncreasesvariabilityandmightleadtospeciationextremesatbothendsofthedistributionarefavouredoverintermediateformsegbodysize4SexualselectionaSelectioncomesfromownspeciesiIntrasexualselectionmembersofonesexcompetetomatewithmembersofoppositesex1UsuallymalescompeteiiIntersexualselectionmembersofonesexchoosemembersofoppositesexbasedonpreferredcharacteristics1UsuallyfemaleschoosethLECTURE3Sept122012Altruism1AltruismaDefinitionpayingacosttogiveabenefittoanotheriAlarmcallingingroundsquirrelsiiEusocialinsectworkersaresterileiiiBirdsthathelpraisesiblingsinsteadofreproducingivJapaneseMacaquesgroomanddefendeachotherfromattackbProblemiNaturalselectionfavorstraitsthatincreasesurvivalandreproductioniiButhowcangenesforaltruismspreadinapopulationwhentheydecreasesurvivalreproductioncSolutioniAltruisticallelecanspreadIFitselectivelybestowsbenefitsonindividualswhocarrythesamealleleiiHowcanXknowifYhasthesamegene1KinselectionshowsfavoritismtowardsbloodrelativeswhosharethesamealtruismgenesiiiSolicitudeshowingconcernforothersivNepotismfavoritismgrantedtorelativesregardlessofmerit2TemptationtocheataCheatersacceptthebenefitwithoutpayingthecostiThreattoindiscriminatealtruists3
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