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PSYC 217- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 41 pages long!)Premium

41 pages197 viewsFall 2017

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 217
Professor
Benjamin Cheung
Study Guide
Final

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UBC
PSYC 217
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Ways of Knowing
Scientific
Non-scientific
Intuition: unquestioning acceptance of own judgment
o Pro:
Fast & easy access to knowledge
Allows us to communicate values that are important to us
o Con:
Difficult to analyze & critique
Subject to prejudice & misconceptions
Authority: knowledge based on information from credible other
o Pro:
Lowers need to acquire own knowledge
o Con:
Authority may be wrong or use other non-scientific WOK
Some authorities may not have legitimate credentials
Can be “authority” due to perceived cues of credibility
o e.g. attractiveness, popularity
Common sense: appealing to what one expects everyone should know
o Pro:
There’s an explanation for every situation
Quick, mutually-understood way to communicate complex idea
o Con:
Often contradictory (making them meaningless)
Cannot be refuted or falsified
Experience: relying on personal experience to make decisions
o Pro:
May be representative of collection of all possible experiences
Vivid examples are easy to remember
o Con:
May not represent general pattern
Cannot account for alternative explanations
Scientific & non-scientific
Logic: knowledge derived from rules of logical thinking
o Pro:
Leads to internally consistent reasoning
Easy to analyze & critique
o Con:
May be based on incorrect info or logical fallacies
What may be logically consistent may not be so in the world
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Intuition & authority are used as sources of ideas about behavior
Canons of Science: DEPT
Determinism
Assumption that the universe is orderly, meaningful & systematic
o This is the foundation of research
The point of research is to figure out what those rules are
e.g. what causes violence
Empiricism
Making structural, systematic observations & objective evaluations
o This is the best way to figure out orderly principles
Parsimony
The best theories are the ones that are the simplest
o Hallmark of a good theory
o Complex theories lead to assumptions & are harder to falsify
1. Simple theories require fewer causal links (less assumptions)
Less data is required to counter the theory
2. Simple theories require less adjustments to establish relationship
Less data is required to test adjustments
Testability
Primary principle of science is being able to test theories empirically
Characteristics of Scientific Method
Universalism
Thanks to empiricism, research with opposite results can be objectively evaluated
Communality
Methods & results are shared publicly to allow replication of studies
o Replications can be used in meta-analyses
Disinterestedness
Scientists should be rewarded for honest & careful quest for truth
o Scientists shouldn’t be motivated by personal gain
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