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Study Guide

PSYC 217- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 59 pages long!)
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59 Pages
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Winter 2014

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 217
Professor
Catherine Rawn
Study Guide
Final

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UBC
PSYC 217
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Probabilistic Reasoning & The Role of Chance
PROBABILISTIC REASONING
- Probabilistic trend: more likely than not but does not hold true in all cases
- Probabilistic prediction = numerical, real prediction (cannot be given with precision)
- Peso-Who “tatistis
Thee ill also e a peso ho goes against the strongest of trends
Eg. smoking some will smoke everyday and not get cancer; others do
Psychological Research on Probabilistic Reasoning
- Insufficient Use of Probabilistic Information e do’t ko ho to use it
- Failure to use sample-size information (smaller samples will always generate more extreme values) sampling
error (assuming that the smaller sample will represent a larger population)
- Gale’s Fallacy: tendency for ppl to see links b/w events in the past and future when the two are really
independent we tend to see patterns
CHANCE
- Explaining Chance: Illusory correlation & the illusion of control
Illusory correlation: he ppl thik the’e seeig co-occurrences feuetl he the’e eall ado
(they see structure where there is none)
Illusion of control: tendency to believe that personal skills can affect outcomes determined by chance
Just-world hypothesis: ppl tend to believe that they live in a world in which ppl get what they deserve
- Chance & Psychology
Coincidence: occurrence of related events due to chance (no other explanation is necessary)
Oddmatch: two events whose co-occurrence strikes us as odd/strange (can happen if wait long enough)
Personal coincidences: same birthdays, remembering coincidental events
- Accepting Error to Reduce Error: Clinical vs. Actuarial Prediction:
Actuarial prediction: predictions based on group trends derived from statistical records (eg. aggregate)
o Predicts the same outcome for all individuals sharing a certain characteristic
o Economics, HR, criminology, medical sciences, etc
o Is superior to clinical prediction in accounting for human behaviour
Clinical prediction: practitioners claim to be able to go beyond group predictions and to make accurate
predictions of outcomes of particular individuals
o Cog psyc, developmental psyc, etc
In psychological science, the goal is truth:
- Was result due to chance? Or did it really represent truth?
Analyze data using statistics
How likely is it that our result is due to random error?
- Aoids elig o hua’s iased thikig
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
- Need to think about probability (likelihood of the occurrence of some event/outcome)
POPULATION VS. SAMPLE
- Population level in the Smarties factory, how many of each colour are made?
Distribution of Smarties colours at the level of the Smarties factory
- Probabilistic trend proportion of each colour of Smarties in the pop of smarties at the factory
The smaller the sample, the less likely the pop will balance out
- Random sample In any fun sized packet of Smarties, how many of each colour are there?
*As our sample size increase, the pattern in the sample will better represent the truth in the population
Samples are imperfect signals of overall probabilities
- Probabilistic trend:
Overall, what is the true effect?
o Trying to get true effect eg. proportion of diff colours (correlation, diff b/w two group means)
Does’t eed to e tue i ee ase fo it to be true generally
Eg. Regression line (line through scatter plot)
o Dots ost of the tie do’t fall o the staight lie aiatio)
o Does’t ea oeall elatioship is’t tue
- Random sample:
Take random sample from pop to estimate true effect
As sample size decreases, estimate is more likely to be wrong
*the smaller the sample the more likely it is to be weird
Why do we need to bother using statistics? Why cant we just look for trends and call it like we see it?
We like to e ight, ut e’e ofte ot
- Focus on (random) rare events
Fail to use probabilistic info when making judgments
eg. peso-ho statistis – I ko a peso ho…
Poailisti teds do’t eed to appl to ee ase to auatel epeset the hole
Focusing on the one rare event
- See patterns in randomness
See trends in events that are really due to chance
Look for patterns in coincidences (eg. Bible code predicting important dates)
Gale’s falla
o Tendency to see links b/w past & future events at times when past events are completely
independent from future events streak
o Independent events do not predict future
o I’ due fo a i!
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
[PSYC 217] Comprehensive winter guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at oneclass.com Probabilistic Reasoning & The Role of Chance PROBABILISTIC REASONING - Probabilistic trend: more likely than not but does not hold true in all cases - Probabilistic prediction = numerical, real prediction (cannot be given with precision) - ▯Pe▯so▯-Who▯ “tatisti▯s • The▯e ▯ill also ▯e a ▯pe▯so▯ ▯ho▯ goes against the strongest of trends • Eg. smoking  some will smoke everyday and not get cancer; others do Psychological Research on Probabilistic Reasoning - Insufficient Use of Probabilistic Information ▯▯e do▯’t k▯o▯ ho▯ to use it▯ - Failure to use sample-size information (smaller samples will always generate more extreme values)  sampling error (assuming that the smaller sample will represent a larger population) - Ga▯▯le▯’s Fallacy: tendency for ppl to see links b/w events in the past and future when the two are really independent  we tend to see patterns CHANCE - Explaining Chance: Illusory correlation & the illusion of control • Illusory correlation: ▯he▯ ppl thi▯k the▯’▯e seei▯g co-occurrences f▯e▯ue▯tl▯ ▯he▯ the▯’▯e ▯eall▯ ▯a▯do▯ (they see structure where there is none) • Illusion of control: tendency to believe that personal skills can affect outcomes determined by chance • Just-world hypothesis: ppl tend to believe that they live in a world in which ppl get what they deserve - Chance & Psychology • Coincidence: occurrence of related events due to chance (no other explanation is necessary) • Oddmatch: two events whose co-occurrence strikes us as odd/strange (can happen if wait long enough) • Personal coincidences: same birthdays, remembering coincidental events - Accepting Error to Reduce Error: Clinical vs. Actuarial Prediction: • Actuarial prediction: predictions based on group trends derived from statistical records (eg. aggregate) o Predicts the same outcome for all individuals sharing a certain characteristic o Economics, HR, criminology, medical sciences, etc o Is superior to clinical prediction in accounting for human behaviour • Clinical prediction: practitioners claim to be able to go beyond group predictions and to make accurate predictions of outcomes of particular individuals o Cog psyc, developmental psyc, etc In psychological science, the goal is truth: - Was result due to chance? Or did it really represent truth? • Analyze data using statistics • How likely is it that our result is due to random error? - A▯oids ▯el▯i▯g o▯ hu▯a▯’s ▯iased thi▯ki▯g find more resources at oneclass.com
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