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PSYCH 305A Midterm 1 Review

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PSYC 305
Sunaina Assanand

Chapter 1 Defining personality: conception of what everyone's personality consists of. What is it? 1. a concept 2. psychophysical – bound by biological systems 3. dynamic – capable of change, responsive to environment 4. organization – organized, not random, predictable 5. create – personality causes behavior, thought, emotion 6. characteristic patterns, relative stability, consistency 7. behavior, thoughts, feels = physical manifestation of personality Why Study it? 1. descriptive goal: challenging to characterize someones personality 2. explanitory goal: how to explain personality 3. predictive goal: use personality to predict response 2 fundamental themes: 1. individual differences (no two people the same 2. intrapersonal functioning (personality guides your actions in various circumstances) – determines how you value different motivesm which many believe determines how you act Theories: definition: proposed explanation/interpretation of the relationship between constructs 2 purposes of a theory: 1. Organize and explain observations 2. suggest/predict new info (this is hard – theories (esp broad ones) uually have ambiguity so the prediction is unclear What makes a theory good? -testable (test, revise, test) -breadth of info behind theory (based on fact) -parsimony – include as few assumptions as possible, SIMPLE (dont have to apply this too rigidly – some assumptions are ok) -subjective analysis – does the theory 'feel' good Constructs: -conceptual of hypothetical variable that can't be directly observed ie: optimism, self-esteem, intelligence Operationalization: - how we measure personality variables -convert construct into a variable that can be observed and measured ie: optimisim – self-report questionnaire; intelligence – score on an IQ test Personality Assessment Techniques Implicit: Rorschach inkblot test Unstructured self-report: 20 statements (I am ______ over and over) Structured self-report: t/f or checkboxes, Rosenberg's self-esteem scale (1 to 5 agree, disagree) Various perspectives on psychology *not meant to describe personality as a whole – merely an aspect Trait- people have fairly stable traits/quals Motive- key element in behavious/experience is internal motive forces Inheritance- personality is genetically based Biological process- personality reflects inner workings of brain/body/nervous system psychoanalytic- personality = set of competing internal forces psychosocial- formation of relationships most important part of human nature social learning- change rather than consistancy learningpersonality self actualization- want to move towards self-perfection cognitive- personality derives meaning from experiences self-regulation- synthesizing goals, moving towards them Assessment why? 1. want to be able to accurately measure specific person's personality 2. need good ways to asses differencesin people, intrapersonal functioning 3. applied psych – clinic, job hiring Chapter 2 (Review of course pre-reqs) Gathering Info -Sources introspection (looking at oneself – may distort because of special relation) vs. looking at others (may misinterpret – cant see into others' head) Seeking Depth -case study (spend time with person, conduct interviews, open-ended), personology (study of a person as a coherent entity) -experience sampling (diary studies): person under study must periodically stop what theyre doing and report experience. Person does not usually have to think very far back, isnt under direct supervision Generality – studies of many peeps generality: how widely a conclusion can be applied – must be based on many peeps, ages, sex, culture, etc Relationships Among Variables -Variabl:edimension along which variation exists – must distinguish its values (ie: test alone the whole spectrum) ie: case below – did not test along whole self esteem spect. Low self esteem ? mid self esteem ? hi self esteem High GPA -correlation between variables: if you examine vars across many people/instances the vals of the 2 vars tend to go together systematically direction of correlation: positive(hi with hi) and negative (lo with lo) Strength of correlation: 0<= correlational coefficient <=1 -can be positive or negative -Significance: statistic (probability that a relationship this strong is by chance is very low (under 5%) clinical/practical: statistically significant and large enough to be practically important -Causality/Limitation of Inference: -WHY two variables go together -correlation can only give intuitions about causality – there could be a 3dvar controlling both → 3 variable problem -experiments to find causality: -experimental method – manipulate indep. Var. -must exert high amt of experimental control- if you cant control- random assignment -careful that the independent variable is the true cause and not some other aspect of the manip. -types of study: -experiment (above) – groupings are random -correlational study: groupings reflect naturally occurring differences, based on characteristics you are measuring Other vocabs : Idiographic: approach that focuses on a particular person across situations Descriptive stats: descrive/characterize some group Inferrential stats: judge whether a relationship exists between vars Main effect: effect of 1 predictor var. is independent of other vars (its the main effecting var) Multifactor study: study with 2+ predictor vars. Chapter 3 – Issues in PersonalityAssessment Sources of Information -Observer rathings – measures coming from someone other than the person being assessed (interviewer) -self-reports (survey, T/F) -implicit assessment: comes from person, but not by asking them directly (eg: inferring something about personality given reaction time) -subjective measure: interpretation is part of the measure (_____ looks nervous) -objective measure: concrete, physical, requires no interpretation (eg: counts of some behaviour) Reliability of Measurement - high degree of consistency and repeatability Inter-rater reliability: two different measurers want to ensure high amount of consistency between Internal Consistency: consistancy within multi item measures (for multi-item questionnaires) Test-retest reliability: consistancy across time (valid for all types of study) Same participants across time. Mood, physical well being cal fuck this up sometimes Validity of Measurement -what you're measuring vs. what you think you're measuring -how well does the operational def inition match the conceptual definition -how to decide if they match? Determine critical elements of conceptual def – same elements in operational def? -validity is important – dont want to draw wrong conclusions Face validity: appears to measure what it intends to (important when assessing negative/highly valued traits. (eg: I'm deceitful or always honest → may lie to make self look better) Criterion validity: predictive validity – usually behavioral measures → someone with hish self-esteem will be expected to act a certain way Convergent validity: related to constructs rather than behavior (intelligence ↔ high self-esteem) – self esteem measure should be correlated with these constructs... Discriminant validity: degree to which a measure does not correlate with a construct it shouldnt be correlated with *usually convergent and discriminant validity are measured at the same time (pos = convergent neg = discriminant) response set: psychological orientation – readiness to answer in a certain way. Acquiscence: tendency to say 'yes' → must word questions carefully social desirability: people want to portray themselves well Rationals behind Development ofAssessment Devices (how to decide which quals to measure) 1. Rational/Theoretical approach: develop theoretical basis for believing that a particular aspect pf personality is important – create test with this dimension reflected in people's answers 2. Empirical approach: data-based rather than theory-based to decide what to assess. Use data to think about which aspects may exists (eg: if you have data- people already diagnosed with disorders- fill a survey to learn which aspects people with those disorders share) Vocabs Inventory: a personality test measuring several aspects of personality on distinct subscales Operational definition: defining of a concept by the concrete events through which is is measured or manipulated Chapter 4 Traits: people remain the same as time passes/across situations – people occupy different points on varying dimensions (ie: introvert → extrovert spectrum) Types: distinct/discontinuous categories (ie: introvert or extrovert) Jung (1993): 2 traits- introvertvs. Extrovert nomothetic view: everyone has same traits, stands somewhere along each trait. People get their uniqueness from their unique combo of traits ideographic view: traits are individualized – people are all unique How to Decide Which Traits matter -factor analysis: if 2 qualities correlate when assessed across many peeps → may reflect common trait (factor extraction) -it is very hard to pick labels for final factors, subjective -factor analysis can: 1. boil down to a smaller set of traits 2. can argue some traits matter more than others 3. help develop assessment devices -does NOT tell us WHAT to measure (ie: HOW we boil down the traits) Eysenck expanded on the introvert/extrovert theory with PEN model – three personality dimensions: extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism (detachment from others) Cartell started with a bunch of words describing personality (empirical starting) -results came out distinctly similar Wiggins – interpersonal circle (dominance vs. submissiveness) – evolutionary basis: best way to prosper is to find those who can aid us The 5-factor Model (Goldberg) -lotsa studies found approximately same 5 traits to be basic – transcended lang, culture, age, gender -disagreement over naming factors → found through empirical means -good candidate for integrating other models -scores do tend to change slightly as we get older (consc.And agree. Up, ext. neu. Decrease), but rank order position (among a group of people) remains stable) factors: extraversion: have social impact, value achievement/stimulation, assertive, sociable neuroticism: distressed, less satisfaction in relationships, earlier death, smoke more, depression, impulsive, insecure agreeableness: wants to maintain relationships, not aggressive, trust, forgiving/understanding, modest conscientiousness: less unsafe sex, parenting, negotiation, religiousness in adulthood, order, dutifulness, organized, efficient, self-discipline openness: favorable interracial attitudes, artistic expression, less stressed, curious, imaginative -do we lose info by combining into supertraits -more supertraits- less intuitive -can use 2 aspects per trait – intermediate position Situationism / Interactionism Situationism: situational forces determine behaviour, not personality (overwhel
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