Chapter Notes for Final.docx

26 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 305
Professor
Sunaina Assanand

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Chapter 10 The Learning Perspective Classical Conditioning CC Classical conditioning reactions can be acquired by associating one stimulus with another Requires 2 things 1 Organism must already respond to some class of stimuli reflexively reliably and automatically 2 Stimuli in the reflex must become associated in time and place with another stimulus the second stimuli is generally neutral at first Before conditioning Neutral stimulus bell ringsno response dogs dont salivateUnconditioned stimulus steakunconditioned responseautomatic reflexive response dog salivates During conditioning Neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus bell rings plus unconditioned stimulus steak equals unconditioned response dog salivates this is called a learning trial continue to do this to cause classical conditioningAfter conditioningConditioned stimulus bell ringsconditioned response dog salivates Classical conditioning is strongest when there are repeated pairings of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli The unconditioned stimulus is more intenseThe sequence of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli involves forward pairingTime interval between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli is short Extinction taking away the unconditioned stimulus causes reduction of unconditioned response reduction in response Spontaneous recovery wait a period of time then the conditioned stimulus will elicit a conditioned response without the unconditioned stimulus Generalization any stimuli similar to conditioned stimulus will elicit a response Discrimination response occurs to one conditioned stimulus but not othersEmotion conditioning referring to classical conditioning in which the CRs are emotion reactionsPeoples likes and dislikes develop through this process linking neutral stimulus to a pleasant even creates a like Instrumental Conditioning AKA Operant Conditioning Instrumental conditioning active the events that define it begin with behaviour the behaviour is not reflexive Law of effect behaviour followed by pleasurable consequences will be more likely to occur Habit hierarchy the order of responses in the hierarchy derives from prior conditioning some responses are very likely because theyre often followed by more satisfying states of affairs Primary reinforcer organism finds it naturally pleasing diminishes a biological need Secondary reinforcer organism finds it pleasing once it is associated with a primary reinforce Positive reinforcement doing something positive for positive responseadding something positive giving something Negative reinforcement removal of a negative stimulusStrengthens a response makes a response more frequent Aversive punishment or positive punishment positive because we are intervening causing a weakness in response Positive cost or negative punishment negative because we are taking something away Discriminative stimulus signal that a particular response will now produce certain consequencesStimulus which turns the behaviour on and off Generalizationas you enter new settings and see new things you respond easily and automatically because there are similarities between the new settings and previous discriminative stimuliA person will behave consistently across time and circumstances if discriminate stimuli stay fairly similar across the times and circumstancesKey stimulus qualities do stay the same across settings making a persons action tendencies to stay the same across settings which makes it appear as though the person has a set of traits Partial reinforcement effect shows up when reinforcement stopsA behaviour built in by partial reinforcement remains longer it is more resistant to extinction Reinforcement can change not only particular behaviours but whole dimensions of behaviour
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