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Final

PSYC 308 Lecture 99: Psyc308 final notes

24 pages78 viewsWinter 2019

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 308
Professor
Heather Armstrong
Study Guide
Final

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Lecture 5 Chapter 9 Slides: interpersonal attraction
Important term
Experiment
Attraction
Forming close relationships
Attachment
Maintaining close relationship
Attraction
The person Next door: the propinquity effect
Similarity
Reciprocal liking
Physical attractiveness
Misattribution of Arousal
The Propinquity Effect
Definition: The propinquity effect is the finding that the more we and interact with people, the more likely they are to become
our friends.
Works because of familiarity, of the mere exposure effect the more exposure we have to something, the more likely we are
to like it.
Votethe more you see, the more you are likely to vote them.
Propinquity =proximity 附近
Nearness in physical space creates the opportunity to meet someone
Textbook talks about online changes
Functional distance
Attraction and propinquity rely on:
1. Actual physical distance. (so you actually have some opportunity to meet someone)
2. Functional distance: certain aspects of architectural design that make it likely some people will come into
contact with each other more often than others (e.g. chairs beside VS. behind you).
Students rated as more likeable by those who sit near them compared to those seated farther away.
Festinger’s Classic Study
Festinger, Schachter and Buck (1950) studies friends in a dorm at MIT.
Student were assigned rooms based on wait list order no one knew each other before the start of
school
Asked people to name their 3 closest friends
Results:
1. 65% people mentioned their best friends live in the same building as them.
2. 41% mentioned that nest door are their best friends. 10% indicate their best friends
are the opposite of the hall.
Functional Distance: 3. People who live in the room 1 or 5, are more likely have friends
upstairs. Because people have to pass their room.
Mere Exposure Effect
The more exposure we have to a stimulus, the more apt we are to like it.
Proximity (propinquity) and attraction
Studies -Moreland & Beach, 1992
4 women pretended to be students in a large introduction psychology class.
One attended 0 class (control), one.. 5 classes, 10 classes, 15 classes.
At the end of the semester, students in the class were asked to rate pictures of the 4 women on several measures.
Result:
1. the more classes a woman attended, the more attractive she was rated by the students.
2. Students also reported that they would be more likely to befriend the women based on how
many classes she had attended.
Why?
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Proximity
Repeated exposure influences attraction
Proximity makes it more likely that people will be repeatedly exposed to one another
Provides an opportunity for people to meet and develop attraction to each other.
Because you have more chance to know them, and you can see you like them or not.
BUT, it works the other way too..
Ebbesen, Kjos & Konecni (1976)
Similar to Festinger et al. But asked students to name people the liked and disliked.
Results:
If you see something have have negative feeling about someone, you will
immediately dislike this person, so the more you see them, just repeated you
believe you don’t like them.
Disliked people were also more likely to be in close proximity.
Proximity is not necessity means liking or attraction, other things also important
in order to form the relationship.
Outline:
Attraction
The person Next door: the propinquity effect
Similarity
Reciprocal liking
Physical attractiveness
Misattribution of Arousal
Similarity
Similarity
Definition: We can be attracted to people who are
Complementarity
Definition: Attraction to people who are Opposite to us
Similarity has a greater effect than complementarity, helps form long-term relationship.
Attitude-similarity effect
We like to be understood, validated my sense of value, and have enjoyable interactions.
Homophily = the tendency to associate and connect with others who are similar to us.
We tend to be attracted to others who are similar in age, level of education, religious and political views, SES, ect.
The more someone shares (or appears to share) our attitudes, beliefs and preferences, the more attractive and likeable
they seem.
StudiesAssortative 配的 mating: tendency to choose a partner who is similar to oneself.
E.g. has even been found that people are more likely to marry someone whole first or last name is similar to their
own. (cuz share some similarity)
BUT, Liking can also lead to perceived similarity
Because we like the person so much, so we over-assumed they like things we like.
Similarity may or may not be there
Can lead to potential conflict and misunderstanding
But, also leads us to like our friends/partners more (greater relationship satisfaction)
Outline:
Attraction
The person Next door: the propinquity effect
Similarity
Reciprocal liking
Physical attractiveness
Misattribution of Arousal
Reciprocal liking
Definition: when you like someone and that person also likes you.
Liking someone who likes us in return.
Very important
你想要对方喜欢上你,首先你要表现出你喜欢对方,对方才会 return
Self-fulfilling Prophecy
Definition: the case whereby people have an expectation about what another person is like, which influences how they
act toward that person, which, in turn, causes that person to behave consistently with their original expectations.
Classic studies: student IQ, teacher.
Studies:
A female research assistant, a male underground participant. They talk about things. The male student
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start to speak, so everything he said, the female disagreed with him, but in a very polite way and gave lots
of eye contact, touch his arm. She showed she really likes him but just disagree with his opinions. After the
discussion, the researcher gave the male a survey: how much you like the female. The male thinks the
female is very attractive and would want to see her again.
The reciprocal liking supersede the idea of similarity. (in here, they don’t have similarity like the female
disagree with the male’s idea, but he likes him)
This is only for initial attraction, if for long-term relationship, the similarity need to be there.
Curtis and Miller (1986)
Randomly paired participants
Before studies began, One student in the pair was lead to believe their partner either liked or disliked them.
Results: Those were thought they were liked were nicer and their participants ended up liking them.
Facebook study
Sample: female undergrads
Told that their facebook profiles had been viewed by male students and that they would now be viewing
the profiles of those guys.
Three levels:
1. He likes your profile
2. He though your profile was average
3. We don’t know how they rated your profile. (third condition)
Results: More attraction to the men (based on their facebook profile) who likes her. But, the guys
don’t know how he rated your profiles more attractive. Mere exposure (because you don’t know so
that you spend more time think the person more, you want to know why, you will more like this
person).
Why?
The influence of Mystery
Suggest that attraction may be influenced by how often we think of the person.
Also, it’s possible that as long as there is some initial attraction, people may be
attracted to someone when they are uncertain about how much the other
person likes them.
Outline:
Attraction
The person Next door: the propinquity effect
Similarity
Reciprocal liking
Physical attractiveness
Misattribution of Arousal
Physical Attractiveness
We know it is important, but we less likely to admit it. We care a lot about physical attractiveness.
Is important, despite what people say!
Most important during a first impression.
Very important when considering a causal sex partner.
Adjust after they thinks for long-term partner.
Important for men and women but more emphasized by heterosexual men than by heterosexual women, especially when
choosing a long-term mate.
Faces
The most attractive faces to be more average, (statistically) and symmetrical.
Attractive faces
Females faces with traditionally more baby face features (e.g. big eyes, small nose, small chin) are generally rated as
more attractive.
Men’s faces are rated as more attractive if they have big eyes, prominent cheekbones, large chin.
Bodies
Waist to Hip Ratio
Women tend to be rated as more attractive when waist is smaller than hips. (0.6-0.65)
Men tend to be rated as more attractive when waist is similar to hips.
Outline:
Attraction
The person Next door: the propinquity effect
Similarity
Reciprocal liking
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