Lecture 1-8 - Cognitive Representation.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 309
Todd Handy

Lecture NYT Research Paper Introduction What are “Cognitive Processes?” ­ Parts, systems, and operations of mind 1 ­ How we “represent” information in our minds ­ Cognitive ­ How information guides our thoughts and actions Processes “Reclaiming Senses” Mental Representation Reich (2012) ­ Cheryl Schiltz – wobbler, antibiotic damaged vestibular system (visual + gravitational stability)­ Neuroimaging data drawn from a number of different studies, data showing that different ­ In our ­ BrainPort – strip of tape on tongue; “visual” areas of the brain can also be activated minds/brains we represent visual and vestibular patterns as by tactile and auditory sensory substitutes 2 represent Braille-like bumps information about ­ Visual areas that differentially respond to ourselves and ­ Sensory Substitution Devices – non- object shapes vs. locations and (b) whether an external environment invasive, more mobile, less obtrusive object is animate vs. inanimate respond to non- visual sensory substitutes for these same object ­ Split Brain ­ Allow one set of sensory information properties substitute for another in the brain 3 Body Representation “Sense of Touch” Barnett-Cowan (2010) ­ Haptics = “touch”, most active sense, ­ Results demonstrate that the perception of both freshness and crispness was systematically ­ Somatosensory ­ Tactile illusions require involvement of other cortex senses ; widespread distribution, touch-related altered when incongruent information was provided receptors (thermal, ­ Phantom limbs Goldenberg (1995) ­ Motor homonculus ­ Bit fresh pretzel – perceived as staler and ­ Ideomotor apraxia – impaired movement; ­ Ideomotor ability to imitate gestures on demand softer when stale pretzel was held in hand apraxia (conscious) ­ Goal: modify perceived textural attributes of ­ Mannequin – move parts of body of action pretzels received by mouth by modifying textural ­ Imitating gestures attributes presented to the hand figure; Left brain damage had deficit not only on ­ Haptics, sense of their body, but understanding spatial touch relationship between body parts in general ­ Perception of food and drink properties can be changed by manipulating other sensory cues ­ Impact of sense associated with them ­ Dexterity – if damage caused motor problem; of touch on taste results show no difference Visual Representation “Face Blindness” Heutink “Family Faces” 4 ­ Prosopagnosia – face blindness, sees ­ JS has impaired recognition of basic emotional faces, but all look more or less the same; can expressions and distorted visual perception of ­ How pathway understand facially expressed emotions, facial faces after stroke (unconscious) cues, gender ­ Poor recognition of familiar faces; family ­ What pathway ­ Fusiform gyrus – responds more strongly to members distorted (conscious) faces than other objects, identity-related ­ Skin conductance responses – psychological ­ Pareidolia processing arousal to stimuli, autonomic response, ­ in occipitotemporal area, mostly affecting ­ Apperceptive ­ Apperceptive Agnosic (orientation, size) middle temporal gyrus of right hemisphere agnosia – ­ Distorted face perception and impaired face impairment ­ Associative agnosia (clarinet, lock) recognition = emotional relevance of faces organizing parts of objects together; no object perception ­ Overt or explicit awareness of family facial ­ Explicit/overt awareness – Representations representations is impaired, but covert or implicit in mind/brain that you are consciously aware of awareness remains intact ­ Associative agnosia – can perceive but impaired o “what” pathway • Preserved faces in memory ability to visually ­ The SCR to family members is not drive by recognize them “normal” positive emotion response, but by an ­ Implicit/covert awareness – “abnormal” response to the ugly/distorted face ­ Prosopagnosia representations in mind/brain that you are NOT – impaired ability to consciously aware • Response to distorted faces that perceive/recognize causes results faces; visually o Anxious, source not aware of recognize all other ­ Mild Prosopometamorphopsia – perceptual o “how” pathway representation, reflex, objects, right side distortions of whole or only half or part of face only unconscious ­ Impairment as a result of poor integration between identity & emotion-related processing 5 Emotional “Battle Hunches” “Somatic Marker Hypothesis” in van Honk (2002) Representation ­ How in a life or death situation, people’s - Introduced emotion into the neurocognition brains can sense imminent danger and act on it of decision-making; Iowa gambling game well before most others’ do ­ Visual Threat - Breaks with long-standing dogma concerning o Knowledge gained through circuit experience matters ­ Amygdala (emotion) o Small differences in how brain rationality in decision-making ­ Reduced processes images - Based on learning that emotions mark certain emotional - Emotional responses help us to make behaviours as having unpleasant outcomes representation – decisions – critical to decision making Capgras’ Delusion - Psychopath has hypoactive (below) somatic - Experience and training can enhance these markers, don’t show learning, no negative ­ Excessive emotional response to losing money; doesn’t responses – understand how it works, learning Emotional association, individual variety affect decision making Representation – Temporal Lobe - Emotional responses are “felt” in the body Epilepsy 6 Memory “Henry Gustav Molaison” (HM) Kwan (2012) Representation
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