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University of British Columbia
PSYC 312
Andrea Perrino

DATA AND HISTORY History= it is interpreted, it isnt all about facts; interpretive study of events of the past (both empirical and explanatory) historiography= the principles, methods, and philosophical issues of historical research (how do we collect data and interpret it). We want to understand what happened, but not judge WHERE DOES THE DATA COME FROM? self documented; witnesses (other academics, family/friends), media (photographs and articles) written (articles, letters, diaries), photos, newspapers, auditory (interiews), equipment/apparatus, personal effects materials used to reconstruct lives, events, eras 1. Lost: permanently (burned, tossed) or temporarily (stored); written long after events= falliable/degraded/reconstructed memories 2. suppressed: EXAMPLES OF LOST OR SUPPRESSED DATA: John B Watson systematically burned his letters, manuscripts, and research notes, destroying the entire unpublished record of his life and career in 1984 the papers of Hermann Ebbinghaus were found 75 years after his death. 10 large boxes were discovered that contained the handwritten diaries of Gustav Fechner, who developed psychophysics over 100 years after Darwin’s death large amounts of new material became available an Italian mathematician stole letters from Rene Descartes Freud’s 1st biographer minimized his use of cocaine a scholar who catalogued the papers of Wolfgang kohler oversaw the selection of materials for publication and restricted selected info to enhance kohlers image a collection of Freud’s papers is held in the library of congress for the protection of his clients and their families along with his reputation along with his families and will not be released for many more years  Descartes notebooks and manuscripts were shipped to Paris after his death but the boat sunk and it took 17 years to restore the documents and get them published  200 years after Descartes death an Italian mathematician stole 72 of his letters and took them to England; only 45 of these letters have been recovered 3. ignored: studies and results not documented (not published) due to lack of findings or too controversial/unusual for the time 4. altered: to protect- kohler's papers (he was writing anti-nazi letters to berlin), Freud's cocaine use 5. distorted: EXAMPLES OF DISTORTED DATA Concepts in Freud’s theory of personality are id, ego, and superego; however, these words Are the Latin equivalents of Freud’s German words (Id=Es; translates to "it"; Ego=Ich for "I"; and superego=Uber-Ich for "above-I"). Freud wanted to describe something intimate and personal from his use of ich and to distinguish it from Es. The translator used the words id and ego and turned these personal concepts into cold technical terms which arouse no personal associations Freud's term free association: association implies a connection between one idea and another which isn’t what Freud proposed. His term: Einfall literally means an intrusion or an invasion. Freud’s idea was not to imply a single linking of ideas but to denote something from the unconscious mind that is uncontrollably intruding into or invading the conscious thought 6. self serving: skinner gave the impression that he was the best student ever (reported as wholly "nose to the grindstone"); freuds self depiction as a martyr to his cause 7. reader/presentist bias: discuss, analyze, interpret in terms of present personal and cultural knowledge and perspectives; bias against women/religion/ethnicity was cultural norm, past individual reflects the milieu; lots of jewish profs changed their names; women reported not being married APPROACHES TO SCIENTIFIC HISTORY 1. personalistic theory: to the ideas of unique, charismatic, intelligent, creative individuals  The view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the ideas of unique individuals  Events would never have occurred without the appearance of monumental figures; i.e. the person makes the times  Often times the work of people was ignored during their lifetimes, only to be recognized long afterwards; this implies that the times can determine whether an idea will be accepted or rejected  People are , or can be, constrained by the zeitgeist 2. naturalistic theory: to the ortgeist (place) and zeitgeist (time), which makes a culture receptive to some ideas but not others; AKA the spirit of the times  The view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the zeitgeist, which makes a culture receptive to some ideas but not to others  The times make the person or make possible the recognition and acceptance of what that person has to say  Simultaneous discoveries emphasize the naturalistic theory  The zeitgeist within science can have an inhibiting effect on methods of investigation, theoretical formulations, and the definition of the discipline’s subject matter 3. historical development: to show how various events or individuals contributed to change in an idea or concept over several years (ex. how mental illness changed throughout history) UNDRSTANDNG HISTORY=UNDERSTANDING CONTEXTUAL FORCES The Zeitgeist: "the intellectual and cultural climate or spirit of the times Economics: job availability, grants, birthrates War: testing, flee/exile to different country, aid efforts (selection), witness to destruction (Freud: thanatos=death instinct) wars provided jobs for psychologists in the form of applied psychology by extending its influence into such areas as personnel selection, psychological testing, and engineering psychology world war II also changed psychology in Europe, especially in Germany where experimental psychology began and Austria where psychoanalysis began after seeing war in place many psychologist shaped theories on it Freud proposed aggression as a major motivating force for the human personality Erich Fromm attributed his interest in abnormal behaviour to his exposure to the fanaticism that swept through Germany during the war Prejudice: DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN women were denied to graduate school or excluded from faculty positions and even when they did get one of these positions they faced barriers and were paid less than men for many years women would not be hired at universities and would only be hired at collages Eleanor Gibson: received awards and honors, but when she tried to apply to graduate school in Yale she was denied based on the fact that the supervisor did not take female graduate students; she was also banned from attending seminars of Freudian psychology Sandra Scarr recalled her 1960 admission interview in Harvard where she was told that they hate admitting females because they, get married, have kids, and don’t finish their degree James McKeen Cattell: encouraged the hiring and accepting of women in psychology and in 1893 nominated two women for membership on the APA 1905 Mary Calkins became APA's first woman president DISCRIMINATION BASED ON ETHNIC ORIGIN into the 1960's Jewish men and women faced admissions quotas in colleges and graduate schools and people often said things like "keeping the Jewish invasion under control" in the 1920's the policy at Harvard was to accept no more than 10-15% of the Jews who applied; they were segregated and not allowed to join frats or other social clubs after they got their PhD's there weren’t permitted to work in the academic world Harry Israel was a protestant, but just his name made him unable to get a job so he took his father’s middle name, Harry Harlow and had a successful career Abraham Maslow was encouraged to change his first name so he would seem less Jewish African Americans in the 1940's: only four black universities offered psychology programs Sumner was the first African American to earn a doctoral degree in psychology Howard University in Washington was thought to be the "black Harvard" in the 1930's in 1933 Inex Beverly Prosser was the first black women to get a PhD in psych Kenneth Clark got his BSc in psych; he created a student protest on segregation and was arrested for disorderly conduct. He wasn't admitted to Cornell University for graduate school because they thought he would be uncomfortable because the students and professor created close personal bonds. His wife, Mamie Phipps Clark had a PhD in psychology but was unable to get hired anywhere, even at the college her husband worked at Him and his wife opened a storefront center known as the North side Center for Child Development and conducted an important study on racial identity and self concept in black children Kenneth Clark was the president of the APA in 1971, the 1st African American elected at that post since the 1960's the APA has tried to create greater diversity to the field and opportunities for minorities to attend graduate school along with more job opportunities for them SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT; THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY school of thought= a term which refers to a group of psychologists who become associated ideologically and sometimes geographically, with the leader of the movement. The members of a school of thought share theoretical orientation and investigate similar problems (ex. behaviourism, psychoanalysis, humanistic) th  Wilhelm Wundt: in the last quarter of the 19 century had ideas about the form his new science should take. He was influenced by the zeitgeist by the current thinking in philosophy and physiology  Controversy arose among psychologists. Some psychologists disagreed with Wundt and proposed their own. 1900 there were several paths in psychology which didn’t easily coexist THOMAS KUHN (1970) "PARADIGM SHIFT" Preparadigmatic phase: divided into (rival) schools of thought, competing viewpoints; pointing out predecessor's errors, and offers new definitions, concepts, research methods...; science was still divided into schools of thought Paradignatic phase: more mature/advanced stage in the development of a science. The majority of scientists agree on theoretical and methodological issues Paradigm= an accepted way of thinking within a scientific discipline that provides essential questions and answers; a model or pattern which is an accepted way of thinking within a discipline Revolutionary phase: alteration of the current order, an existing paradigm is displaced by another WHERE IS PSYCHOLOGY NOW, THEN? Argues: Preparadigmic: heterogeneity and fragmentation, still characterize us (developmental, cognitive, evolutionary..etc) Coexisting Paradigms: no need for homogeneity across disciplines, revolution within sub-disciplines acceptable The development of modern psychology Early Chinese Psychologies Lao-Tze - how we should return to nature and find the way of thinking Confusionism (551-479 B.C.) Worldview organized around a number 5: elements, sense organs, sensations (sight, vision, hearing, touch, taste), colours (red, yellow, green, black, white)-smells-sounds, emotions (joy, sorrow, anger, desire, fear), human relations (father-son, elder brother-younger brother, student-ruler, husband-wife, child-father) He was known for his wisdom and honesty; He was committed to harmony within ourselves and within the world around us Hsün Tzu (289-212 B.C.) Argued rational, empirical methods, not superstition and mere beliefs Learning important in human life (evil first, learn to be good) Philosophy/psychology: yin & yang, the opposite and complimentary Maintain Balance for physical and psychological well-being Mind dominant over servant body; psychological properties are just as important as physical well being Therapies: acupuncture, organ therapy (try to find balance) Babylonia Divergent explanations: empirical (math, astronomy, medicne, language, etc. They could predict eclipses, showed accurate human anatomy) and magical-religious numerous major and minor gods and demons: diverse, associated with all life aspects, magic rites, prayer, incantations, priest/priestess Insanity caused by demon "Idta", exorcisms through medicine, confessions, magic rites Prevention and treatment: ward off with charms, symbols, virtuous behaviour, avoid women with powers (all women were thought to have powers which could be released at any time, and women were the only ones who could unleash devils to inhabit people) Egypt Polytheistic - worship everything (plants, animals, planets, people...) Immortality: mummification, burial customs; believed that the mind and soul remained after death and that it was important to nurture them Heart is centre of mental activity (emotions), head is subservient First to provide description of the brain in the sense of what it could be used for: head injurues=speech, memory disorderrs Medicine blend of superstition and empiricism: Treat with rituals, incantations, rest, surgery, enemas, medicine (topical-dung, honey, blood, organs..) Hygiene emphasized: they practiced circumcision and fumigation of the vagina (put smoke and incense under the vagina to bring the uterus back to resting position) Emotional disorders caused by "wandering uterus" (it wanders to other parts of your body, which causes illness; it wanders because it is looking for conception, moistness) Hebrews Radical monotheism: one god Scholarly religious activity emphasized Discussed concept of moral insanity/psychopathy: due to punishment from god; Mental illness: caused by anger of God, initiated by human disobedience Child rearing: Gift from God, unless defects (real or imagined); sacrificed, sold; Duty to parents (honor thy mother and thy father) and if you didnt and you were rebellious you would be put to death The Greeks (600-300B.C.) Cosmology: nature of the universe; introduction to evolution, atomic theory, psychology was speculated Thales - water=primal substance which everything comes from, tried to make up a natural and unnatural explanation for movement (magnetic soul) Anaximenes - soul is rarefied air (it is different for different people; different densities), holds body & world together Pythagoras - coined "philo(love)sophy (knowledge)"; Thought that brain holds mental life used music as therapy when we feel upset or angry transmigration of souls: you are what you eat; suggested we shouldn’t eat animals at all because in doing so we might eat the soul of an ancestor many prohibitions: laughter only in open rooms, you do not put your left shoe on first, wearing rings, eating beans... Parmenides -philosophy of being, senses may be illusory, mechanisms of perception (we perceive from what is in us, from an opposition of what is in us to what is outside); perceive light due to fire within us Rational and Mystical continue to collide Human strength and weakness attributed to Gods Apollo = medicine; Hygieia = health There were many temples for therapy (like spas): hot and cold contrast baths, bloodletting, massages; sleep, diet, massage/baths, dreams, snakes as a symbol of mystery power and knowledge Hippocrates - founder of medicine Physical and psych. disease from imbalance of elements: fire, earth, air, water; balance between black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm (the humor's; all imbalances can lead to physical or mental illness) dreams represent activity of the soul; can indicate illness (if there is a greater contrast between reality and your dreams there is a greater chance of illness) classified mania, melancholia, paranoia, epilepsy treatments: honey, exercise, laughter, blooding, surgery (trephination to allow air holes and reduce pressure on the head) Socrates He was thought to have corrupted the youth, denied Gods, criticized leaders opposed to just accepting the politics of the time we obtain knowledge from perception and analysis he was an interactionist and claimed multiple causes of behaviour: mental, physical, and social Plato - psyche (psuche) = soul, mind/immortal He believed in the pursuit of justice he believed the mind has higher (rational processes, being an adult) & lower (appetite, childishness) activities memory - storage, retrieval properties (soul acts as a wax slate; we remember well if the impression is deep within the wax) motivation - motivated by pleasure, pain, appetite, fear (not a long term motivator) mental disorders - due to ignorance, imbalances (you need a balance of the rational [head; reasonable thought] and irrational [in our gut, appetite; animalistic]) Aristotle father of zooology he wanted to understand different causes; what is our purpose - material cause is what is it made of, formal cause is the shape or the identifying features of something, efficient cause is what set something in motion (ex. a wind pushes the tree over), final cause is the purpose *****know these causes for test soul function- vegetative, sensitive soul (pain, pleasure, perceiving), rational (we can be passive or active) physiological psych - interdependent soul-body memory - impressions/pictures; recollection techniques (laws); we create an image and it can be imprinted on us by the quality of the memory depends on the receiving surface (as you age your surface gets worse and so does your memory); he believed there could be active recollection of memory, another type can occur without recollection called spontaneous recollection sensation – medium, perceptual illusions (ex. skin and tongue are the medium in order to have touch) motivation and happiness- social support, attractiveness, relationships, persistence and having good habits "effort can lead to joy" The Roman Period (7 century B.C. – 476 A.D.) Stoicism – Humans are fools and they should suppress themselves and do things only to appease gods Epicureanism - life goal is happiness, avoid pain: soul operates through the physiology of the body. Sensation is important Cynicism - reject social convention and live naturally: Diogenes is the son of a money changer for defacing coins, his goal was to deface all faces and he said "a slave is no different than a king" and chose to live like a dog and was called a cynic (meaning canine) Neoplatonism - soul seeks dominance over body by rejecting material and finding universal truth in God; body is agent & prison to the soul; soul is capable of reason but it needs the body to relay sensation to it Hypatia - sacred woman (exalted virginity) she was a celebrated mathmatician. She was remembered for her expertise in geometry and astronomy. She used music as therapy. Hypatia came under the suspician of the church and was murdered and her teaching wasnt allowed to be studied The Middle Ages (Medieval Psych) Christianity Dualism returns, take authoritative, administrative form (religious, political, cultural life) Inquisition, censorship, torture or death (if it didnt coincide with the thoughts of the church there must have been an error "Error" in work, mentally ill/socially incompetent) humans distinct from nature (chance for salvation, immortality) ritual, candles, incense, procession, veneration to saints good and bad periods for papal power, beliefs (violence; fall of Western empire) The Renaissance (approx. 1450-1600) Ushered in by the plague (AKA Black Death); considered a medical holocaust; Jews were blamed for this Thought that the plague was caused by people who thought god was punishing them and caused self inflicted pain; The black death tested beliefs because even the preists were dying Humanism- glorify humanity individualism, personal religion, interest in past (people used music for their sorrow and for their happiness) people- power to change, choose, improve the world rejection of rules/dogma, criticized church Reformation and beyond - Calvin, Machiavelli, Shakespeare, Copernicus, Megellan… Luther: opposed the churches indulgences (if you paid a certain amount you could be atoned for your sins) King henry 8th: he wanted a divorce which the church did not allow Marco Polo: exploration of africa, asia, india fragmentation of christianity: caused by everyone disagreeing with the church reduced fear: people exploring renewed interest in science, truth through reason, value of human intellect Philosophical Influences THE SPIRIT OF MECHANISM th  The zeitgeist in the 17 century: the spirit of mechanism, the image of the universe as a great machine  Mechanism: the doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determines and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry; all natural processes are mechanically determined; can be explained; World is measurable and has predictable order  The idea of mechanism started in physics with Galileo and Newton. Galileo said that matter was made up of discrete corpuscles or atoms that affected one another by direct contact. Newton suggested that movement was communicated not by actual physical contact but by forces that acted to attract and repel the atoms; Science=measurement; Physical effect must have a physical cause  The operation of the physical world was considered to be orderly, like a smoothly running machine  Observation and experimentation became the distinguishing features of science, followed closely by measurement Determinism: acts are caused by past events; order, regularity in each parts’ function; understand the process=predict future  Determinism: the doctrine that acts are determined by past events; we can predict the changes that will occur in the operation of the clock as well as in the universe because we understand the order and regularity with which its parts function Reductionism: understand function by disassembling; analyze simplest parts for understanding it  Reductionism: the doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas); the workings of machines such as clocks could be understood by reducing them to their basic components Automata  Automata: devices built to imitate human movement and actions and were capable of performing marvelous and amusing feats with precision and regularity; mimicked human beh., entertainment and production  Automata were developed much sooner than the 17 century; in fact they date back to the 6 th th century; however, when recreated in the 17 century they were thought to be new  The philosophers and scientists of the time believed this kind of clockwork technology might fulfill their dream of creating an artificial being  Descartes adopted automata as models for human beings; automata paved the way for the ideas that human functioning and behaviour were governed by mechanical laws and that the experimental and quantitative methods so successful in uncovering the secrets of the physical universe could be applied to human nature Babbage: Calculating engine: “the difference engine”, (basic math, memory, games) then, larger “analytical engine,” programmed with punch cards (separate memory, info processing capacity, printed output) 1st successful attempt at duplicating human cognition; artificial intelligence  He was gifted at math and wanted to create a calculating machine that could perform math operations faster than humans and then print the results  He formulated the basic principles that drive modern computers  The government withdrew funding on this machine and refused to provide funding for his next idea, “the analytical engine”  The Countess of Lovelace: Ada, was fascinated with Babbage’s machines and was the first to recognize the fundamental limitation of a thinking machine, which is that it cannot, on its own, originate or create anything new; it can only do what it is programmed to do th  Babbage who typified the 19 century notion of humans operating as machines, was far ahead of his times Empiricism: the anti-metaphysical movement: do not rely on reason or intuition or revelation; pursuit of knowledge via experimentation, scientific inquiry; trust only evidence provided by senses; mind acquires knowledge through experience (sensory experiences); analysis of experience into elements, synthesis of elements to form mental experience via association  In the 17 century empiricism became important  Empiricism: the pursuit of knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of all knowledge to experience  Knowledge passed down from the past became suspect René Descartes: forerunner of modern psychology 1st to describe retinal image as inverted  He came to the conclusion that if you whip a dog while he listens to the sound of a violin soon the sound of the violin along with make the dog whimper (CC)  Descartes was requested by the Queen of Sweden to teach her in philosophy; however, when Descartes arrived he wasn’t satisfied with the location and time of their lessons  He withstood the early hour and cold for 4 months before he got pneumonia and died THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF DESCARTES: MECHANISM AND THE MIND BODY PROBLEM  Descartes attempted to resolve the mind-body problem  Mind-body problem: the question of the distinction between mental and physical qualities. Are the mind and body distinct from each other?  dualistic approach: the mind and the body had different natures. Holding this belief raises questions such as: what is the relationship between mind and body? How do they interact?  Descartes was a dualist, but he thought the mind influences the body but the body exerts a greater influence on the mind (mutual interaction between mind and body)  Descartes ideas had a great influence on everyone and now functions preciously attributed to the mind, were now considered functions of the body  mind had only a single function: thought, and all other processes were functions of the body  Descartes redirected attention of scholars from abstract theological concept of soul to the scientific study of the mind and mental processes. Methods of inquiry shifted from subjective metaphysical analysis to objective observation and experimentation  People could only speculate about existence of the soul whereas they could actually observe the operations and processes of the mind  The mind was thought to be free; unextended and lacks physical substance THE NATURE OF THE BODY Descartes thought that because the body is composed of physical matter it must possess those characteristics common to all matter; extension in space and the capacity for movement the body is like a machine whose operation can be explained by the mechanical laws that govern the movement of all objects in space Descartes arrived at the ides of the undulatio reflexa: a movement not supervised or determined by a conscious will to move for this conception Descartes is often called the author of the reflex action theory the reflex action theory: the idea that an external object (a stimulus) can bring about an involuntary response; it appears to be completely mechanical or automatic; external leads to involuntary response the mechanical body is thought to operate in ways that can be expected or anticipated as long as the inputs are known THE MIND-BODY INTERACTION according to Descartes the mind is nonmaterial and lacks physical substance but is capable of thought and other cognitive processes the mind has none of the properties of matter, but it does have the capacity to think and it is this characteristic that sets the mind apart from the material or physical world before Descartes could complete his theory about the interaction of mind and body he needed to locate the physical part of the body where the mind and the body mutually interacted; the pineal gland  brain, pineal (they interact through the pineal gland) (spirits in nerves make impression, sensation follows) he suggested that the movement of animal spirits in the nerve tubes makes an impression on the conarium and from this impression the mind produces a sensation; i.e. a quantity of physical motion produces a mental quality THE DOCTRINE OF IDEAS Descartes suggested that the mind produces two kinds of ideas: derived and innate ideas derived ideas: derives ideas are produced by the direct application of an external stimulus; directly from external stim innate ideas: arise from the mind of consciousness, independent of sensory experiences or external stimuli; although innate ideas are independent of sensory experiences they may be realize in the presence of appropriate experiences; develop out of the mind (self, god) the doctrine of ideas inspired opposition among early empiricists and associationists such as Locke Descartes work acted as a catalyst for many trends: mechanistic conception of the body, the theory of reflex action, the mind-body interaction, the localization of mental functions in the brain, the doctrine of innate ideas Following Descartes …nothing innate… 200 years after Descartes, philosophical thought had become infused with a new spirit: positivism Positivism: Recognizes only that which is objectively observable (vs. metaphysical and theological=nonsense); the doctrine that recognized only natural phenomena or facts that are objectively observable; this thought and term were the work of Auguste Comte Comte decided to work with ideas which were beyond question and that could be determined solely through the methods of science he believed that the physical sciences had already reached a positivist stage, no longer dependent on unobservable forces or religious beliefs to explain natural phenomena the European zeitgeist of the late 1800's: everyone was a positivist or at least professed to be Materialism: the doctrine that considers the facts of the universe to be sufficiently explained in physical terms by the existence and nature of matter; universe & consciousness explained with physics and chemistry; mental due to brain anatomy and physiology materialism also supported anti-metaphysical positivism the materialist’s work on mental processes focused on physical properties--the anatomical and physiological structures of the brain empiricism: empiricists were concerned with how the mind acquires knowledge and argued that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience Positivism, materialism, and empiricism became the philosophical foundations of the new science of psychology empiricism played the major role and could be related to the growth of the mind; The mind grows through the progressive accumulation of sensory experiences The Empiricists John Locke: learning and good health; hardening (kids should endure hardship and should not create weakness), reward he was secretary to the Earl of Shaftesbury and had to flea England because the Earl was involved in a plot against the king and Locke was now under suspicion and left for Holland once he returned to England he was interested in religious freedom and the right of people to govern themselves Locke was concerned with cognitive functioning; the ways in which the mind acquires knowledge and he rejected the existence of innate ideas and argued that humans aren't born with any knowledge whatsoever Aristotle held this view before Locke saying the mind at birth was a tabula rasa (a blank slate) you learn through experience and Locke recognized 2 kinds of experiences: one derived from sensation, the other from reflection; sensations (input), reflections (formed; thinking, remembering) the ideas derived from sensation are from direct sensory input from physical objects in the environment and are simple sense impressions. These sense impressions operate on the mind and the mind itself operates on the sensations, reflecting on them to form ideas this cognitive function of the mind's reflection are based on impressions already experienced through the senses sensations appear first; they are a necessary forerunner of reflections in reflecting we recall past sensory impressions and combine the two form abstractions and other higher level ideas all ideas arise from sensation and reflection, but the ultimate source remains in our sensory experiences Locke distinguished between simple and complex ideas: simple (parts; passively received by mind), complex (joined; abstract, can be reduced) simple ideas: elemental ideas that arise from sensation and reflection; received passively from the mind; cannot be analyzed or reduced to even simpler ideas complex ideas: derived ideas that are compounded of simple ideas and thus can be analyzed or reduced to their simpler components theory of association: association: the notion that knowledge results from linking or associating simple ideas to form complex ideas; association is the early name for learning Natural universe; the basic particles of the mental world are the simple ideas, conceptually analogous to the atoms of matter in the mechanistic universe of Galileo. These elements of the mind cannot be broken into simpler elements, but they can combine, or be associated to form more complex structures theory of association was a significant step in the direction of considering the mind to be a machine Locke made a distinction between primary and secondary qualities: (qualities; exist as it really does) vs secondary (interaction with it) primary qualities: characteristics such as size and shape that exist in an object whether or not we perceive them secondary qualities: characteristics such as color and odor that exist in our perception of the object example of secondary qualities: have three glasses of water: one cold, one Luke warm, and the other how. Put left hand in the cold water and the right hand in the hot water then put them both in the Luke warm water (one hand will perceive the water as cool, the other as warm) George Berkeley: mechanical association of sensations (held together, depth perception, relative size, convergence) when he died his body was left in bed until it began to decompose because Berkeley believed that purification was the only sure sign of death and he didn’t want to be buried prematurely Berkeley thought that perception is the only reality; knowledge of the external world comes from experience he disagreed with Locke’s primary and secondary qualities and argued there are NO primary qualities; Berkeley thought that all knowledge came from experience perceived by a person Mentalism: the doctrine that all knowledge is a function of mental phenomena and dependent on the perceiving or experiencing person; only secondary, perception & experience is knowledge of the world a physical object is nothing more than an accumulation of sensations we experience concurrently, so that they become associated in our mind by habit; the world of our experiences becomes the summation of our sensations we can never know the precise physical nature of objects God functioned as a permanent perceiver of all the objects in the universe which causes stability complex ideas are formed by joining the simple ideas that are received through the senses the mind constructs complex ideas by fitting together these basic mental building blocks--the simple ideas Berkeley used association to explain visual depth given that the human eye has a retina of only two dimensions; he said we perceived depth as a result of our experience. We associate visual impressions with the sensations that occur as our  Eyes adjust to seeing objects at different distances and with the movements we make in approaching or retreating from the objects we see David Hume: Two kinds of mental content: impressions (strong)/sensations and ideas (faint; weak recollection of smell, taste)/images Laws of association (learning): resemblance (spurious correlation; more similar they appear), contiguity (closer together) self-identity – “recall punctuated entries”: become who we are David Hartley – Repetition together, leads to association (1 used to associate to explain all mental activity); Adult thinking, judging, and reasoning from earlier occurring simple ideas Hartley's fundamental law of association is contiguity, by which he attempted to explain the process of memory, reasoning, emotion, and voluntary and involuntary action ideas and sensations which occur together become associated (the occurrence of one is associated with the occurrence of the other) Repetition of sensations and ideas is necessary for association to be formed repetition: the notion that the more frequently two ideas occur together, the more readily they will be associated he agreed with Locke in that all ideas and knowledge are derived from experiences conveyed to us through the senses, there are no innate associations, no knowledge at birth he viewed the mental world in mechanistic terms; he suggested that nerves were solid (not hollow tubes like Descartes thought) and the vibrations initiated smaller vibrations in the brain which were the physiological counterparts of ideas; applied mechanic principles to physiol. Processes underlie psychological processes (vibratunicles: nerves are solid tubes, set in motion by external stimuli [brain vibrates]=learning. Vibrations fade unless active again. Learning connections=vibrate at different brain locations) Essentialism: women naturally more emotional, worse judgement, unconcerned with science and math, incapable of understanding, used to justify womens lack of educational opportunity Mary Wollstonecraft: pioneer for women’s emancipation; differences in genders due to educational access, “training” power vs. essentialism James Mill: no creativity acted on by external stimuli, operated by “internal physical forces” – just old ideas shifted around to look new James mill applied the doctrine of mechanism to the human mind with rare distinctness and comprehensiveness he wanted to destroy the illusion of the subjective or psychic activities and demonstrate that the mind was nothing more than a machine the mind is a totally passive entity that is acted on by external stimuli which we respond to automatically Mill had no place in his theory for the concept of free will he believed the mind should be studied by reducing it to its elementary components he thought sensations and ideas are the only kind of mental elements that exist empiricist-association: all knowledge begins with sensations are derived through the process of association, higher level complex ideas he believed the mind has no creative function because association is automatic and passive the sensations that occur together in a certain order will reproduce mechanically as ideas and these ideas occur in the same order as their corresponding sensations; i.e. association is mechanical and the resulting ideas are merely the accumulation or sum of the individual mental elements John Stuart Mill James Mill created a rigorous program of private tutoring and everyday would drill his son in all subjects until he answered correctly he was appalled that women had no financial or property rights and compared the plight of the women to that of other disadvantaged groups  social reform: equality of sexes, freedom of expression he suggested that marriage be more a partnership between equals than a master/slave relationship he argued against the mechanistic position of his father who viewed the mind as passive and instead found the mind to play an active role in the association of ideas he proposed that complex ideas are not merely the summation of simple ideas but are more than the sum of individual parts because they take on new qualities that are not found in the simple elements creative synthesis: the notion that complex ideas formed from simple ideas take on new qualities; the combination of the mental elements creates something greater than or different from the sum of the original elements chemists were demonstrating the concept of synthesis in which chemical compounds were found to exhibit attributes and qualities not present in their component parts or elements complex ideas formed by combining simple ideas take on characteristics not found in their elements was termed, by Mill, mental chemistry (mind active: combination to form new ideas; creation) he recommended a new field of study called ethology devoted to factors that influence the development of the human personality Physiological Influences Johannes Müller: Depression; suicide; advocate of experimental method; specific energies of nerves doctrine Marshall Hall: observe decapitated animals’ move; diff. levels of movement depend on diff. parts of N.S.; reflexive behavior Pierre Flourens: Neoplasticity: take over parts possible  Used the method of Extirpation: Systematically destroyed parts of the brain. .; determining brain parts function by remove/destroying it; observe the behavior change  Shape no effect on intelligence o Brain tissue to soft to make any bulges o Areas designed by Gall for specific mental function was an error. Paul Broca: Postmortem operation on “Tan”- patient Clinical method: examine (damaged) brain structures of corpse; responsible for behavioural bonds that existed rd Broca’s area: speech area, 3 frontal convolution, left hemisphere Franz Josef Gall: clinical method for brain map (confirmed existence ofwhite and gray matter, bilateral, spinal cord) brain size related to person: cranioscopsy/phrenology (Fowler brothers – fad used for money and business) reinforced ideas: localization of specific brain functions; popular = accurate/valid?  Nerve fibers connecting each side of the
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