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Final

PSYC 314 Final: PSYCH 314 Final Exam - Lecture Notes


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 314
Professor
David King
Study Guide
Final

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PSYCH 314 Lecture Notes
Nov 10
Chronic conditions
58% of population has a chronic condition
1/3 of adults age 18-44
likely to develop one that will lead to death
account for / of Canada’s health spending
more common among lower-income Canadians, women, and seniors
Quality of life- the degree to which a person is able to maximize his/her physical,
psychological, vocational, and social functioning; includes disease or treatment
related symptoms
emphasis placed on daily living, such as sleeping, eating, going to work, and
engaging in social activities
important indicator or recovery from or adjustment to chronic illness
important aspect is people’s perceptions of their own health- Likert response
scale more predictive of long term health than blood pressure
Medical Outcomes Short Form Health Survey
common measure
Pain- an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or
potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage
symptom of greatest concern to patients, and the most likely to lead them to
use health services
influenced by psychosocial processes
purpose:
o intrapersonal: warns of tissue damage, injury, disease
o interpersonal: warns others, evokes empathy and care
Gate Control Theory of Pain
neural pain gate in spinal cord opens or closes to modulate pain signals to the
brain
certain factors can amplify and minimize pain perception
Biomedical Approach
assumption of one-to-one correspondence to injury/disease
focus on pharmacological, surgical, or other medical interventions to control
pain
Pain without Pathology
fibromyalgia- chronic widespread pain and heightened pain response to
pressure. Appears to result from neurochemical imbalances- results in
abnormal pain processing.
Coping with Pain
adaptive coping- relaxation, distraction, redefinition; readiness to change,
taking active role ( and self-efficacy)
o acceptance
maladaptive coping- destructive forms of thinking
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o catastrophizing: magnification, rumination, and helplessness
primary appraisal: focusing on and exaggerating the threat
value of pain
secondary appraisal: appraisals of helplessness and of inability
to cope
Communal Coping Model of Pain Catastrophizing
considers the role of pain within a social context
being in a social context will increase behavior of engaging in catastrophizing
because they will appear to be in greater need- increases the likelihood that a
person will come closer and offer empathy and support
catastrophizing as a method of gaining support and empathy
also increases experience and feelings of pain
Social Communication Model of Pain
how pain unfolds in a social context
person in pain
o personal experience of pain
o expression of pain
caregiver
o pain assessment
o pain management
nonverbal measures o f pain
four basic types of pain behaviours
o negative affect
o facial and audible expression of distress
o distortions in posture or gait
o avoidance of activity
How do people respond to Chronic and Terminal Illness
immediately after diagnosis- often a state of crisis or shock
o engage in more emotion-focused coping early on
denial- inability to recognize, accept, or deal
o secondary appraisal
o eventually crisis phase passes
emotional responses
o anxiety- especially high when awaiting test results, receiving
diagnosis, awaiting invasive medical procedures, and experiencing
side effects of treatment
o anger- common early response to diagnosis
o depression- may be delayed as patients try to understand implications
of condition
Impact of Chronic Illness on the Self
mental self
o self-concept: beliefs about one’s qualities and attributes
o self-esteem: whether one feels good or bad about their self-concept
the physical self
o body image- perception of one’s physical functioning and appearance
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o can also affect sexual functioning
How do people cope with Chronic and terminal illness following the initial
response?
Social support/direct problem solving
Distancing
Positive focus
Cognitive escape/avoidance
Behavioural escape/avoidance
Maladaptive coping strategies
o Rumination
o Avoidant coping (denial) associated with increased psychological
distress, can exacerbate the disease process, leading to poor
adjustment to illness
o Interpersonal withdrawal- associated with loneliness and low
relationship satisfaction
Adaptive coping strategies
o Active coping
o Planning
o Support-seeking
o Positive reappraisal
Coping with Cancer: psychosocial benefits of support groups
Improved mood
Reduced uncertainty
Improved self-esteem
Enhanced coping skills
Improved quality of life
Thaker (2006) Cancer and stress study
Experimental design- human ovarian carcinoma cells injected into mice
Mice exposed to chronic stress
Stressed mice had bigger and more tumors
Psychosocial interventions used to manage chronic illness
Psychopharmacological interventions
Patient education
Individual therapy
Stress management/relaxation
Support groups
Nov 22
Management of Terminal Illness
(ealthcare system cannot necessarily manage all of a patient’s needs
o Support from family and friends
o Comfort and peace
o Familiar settings and familiar people
o Opportunities for reminiscence
o Imparting wisdom to next generation
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