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PSYC 314- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 132 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 314
Professor
Anita Delongis
Study Guide
Final

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UBC
PSYC 314
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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What is Health Psychology Chapter 1
WHAT IS HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY?
- Health psychology: devoted to understanding psychological influences on how ppl stay healthy, why they become
ill, how they respond when they do get ill Also promote interventions to help ppl stay well or get over illness
- Health: complete state (achievement) of physical, mental, & social well-being, not merely the absence of disease
or infirmity (WHO) wellness
- Health psychologists focus on:
Health promotion & maintenance (eg. how to get children to develop good health habits)
Prevention & treatment of illness (eg. screening)
Etiology (origins/causes of illness) & correlates of health, illness, & dysfunction (eg. smoking, exercise)
Ipat & iproeet of health istitutios & health professioals o ppl’s ehaiour
*Health behaviours = modifiable factors
Treatment related behaviours include:
- Screening behaviours (cancer screening)
- Care-seeking behaviours (going to the doctor)
- Maintenance & adherence behaviours (treatment adherence & discontinuation)
HOW HAS OUR VIEW OF THE MIND-BODY RELATIONSHIP CHANGED OVER TIME?
Mind-body relationship: if mind & body operates as a single system, or two separate systems
- Earliest times (Stone Age) mind & body were one
Disease when evil spirits entered body, dug holes in skull (trephination) to allow evil spirits to leave body
- Greeks Humoural theory (proposed by Hippocrates, later expanded by Galen) mind & body were one
Disease arose when the four circulating fluids of body (blood, black bile, yellow bile, phlegm) are out of
balance specific personality types associated with the predominant humour need to restore balance
- Middle Ages Church = guardian of medical knowledge, supernatural explanations of illness (priests as physicians)
- Renaissance mind & body separate (dualism Descartes) patient believing/trusting physician
Changing physical pathologies & altering imagination to produce bodily change
Psychoanalytic Contributions
Conversion hysteria (Freud): unconscious conflicts can produce physical disturbances that symbolized the repressed
psychological conflicts patient converts conflict to a symptom (via voluntary nervous system), then free of conflict
- No necessary physiological changes
Psychosomatic Medicine
Psychosomatic medicine: bodily disorders caused by emotional conflicts (ulcers, hyperthyroidism, rheumatoid
arthritis, essential hypertension, colitis, bronchial asthma) relied on subjective, verbal interventions
- Dunbar & Alexander (1940s) Illesses produed  idi’s internal conflicts (patterns of personality)
- Takes a physiological toll on body via autonomic nervous system
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Behavioural Medicine
Behavioural medicine: integrating behavioural science & biomedical science to understand physical health & illness
- And developing & applying knowledge & techniques to prevent, diagnose, treat, rehabilitate
Current Views of the Mind-Body Relationship
- All conditions of health & illness are influenced by psychological & social factors
- Treatment & recovery is affected by relationship b/w patient & practitioner
- Staying well good health habits (personal control), socially determined factors (culture, SES, place, stress, etc)
- Growing holistic (mind & body together) approaches
Eastern illness as disharmony (acupuncture, meditation, massage, herbal remedies, etc)
Western integrating Eastern therapies into standard medical care
WHAT IS THE BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH?
Biopsychosocial Model vs. Biomedical Model
- Biopsychosocial model: health & illness are consequences of interplay of biological, psychological, & social factors
- Biomedical model: ill explained on basis of aberrant somatic processes (eg. biochemical imbalance,
neurophysiological abnormality psychological & social processes are independent of disease process
Reductionist model: reduces illness to low-level processes (eg. disordered cells)
Single-factor model of illness: explains illness in terms of a biological malfunction (rather than recognizing
that a variety of factors may be responsible)
Assumes a mind-body dualism (separate entities)
Emphasizes illness over health (focusing on aberrations that lead to illness rather than promoting health)
Cannot explain why a particular set of conditions will inevitably lead to illness
Advantages of the Biopsychosocial Model
- Both macrolevel (psychological & social) & microlevel (biological) processes
- Multiple causal factors considered
- Mind & body inseparable
- Emphasizes both health & illness (health = active achievement)
Health something that one achieves through attention to biological, psychological, social needs
- Systems theory: all levels of organization in any entity are linked to each other hierarchically, change in one level
will effect change in all other levels
Eg. changes in microlevel processes can effect macrolevel processes (& vice versa)
- Significant relationship b/w patient & practitioner (effective relationship can improve efficacy of treatment)
WHY IS THE FIELD OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY NEEDED?
Changing Patterns of Illness
- Early 20th century, acute disorders (tuberculosis, pneumonia, etc) were among the major causes of illness/death
Acute disorders: short-term medical illnesses, result of viral/bacterial invader (usually amenable to cure)
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