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PSYC 314
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Chapter One What is Health PsychOctober0311611 PMHealth psychologists focus onHealth promotion and maintenancePrevention and treatment of illnessEtiology and correlates of health illness and dysfunctionAnalyze and attempt to improve the health care system and the formulation of health policy View of MindBody Relationship Changed Over Timethe Greeks were among the earliest civilizations to identify the role of bodily functioning in health and illnessdisease arises when the 4 circulating fluids of the body blood black bile yellow bile and phlegm are out of balancemysticism and demonology dominated concepts of disease which was seen as Gods punishment for evil doingAnton van Leeuwenhoeks work on microscopyGiovanni Morgagnis contribution to autopsy Flanders Dunbar in 1930sspecific illnesses are produced by individuals internal conflictsCorrelational StudiesDisadvantageImpossible to determine the direction of causality unambiguously AdvantageMore adaptable than experiments enabling us to study issues when the variables cannot be manipulated experimentally Chapter Three Health BehavioursOctober0311634 PMBeneficial Effects of Successful Modifications of Health BehavioursReduce the deaths due to lifestylerelated diseasesIt may delay time of death thereby increasing individual longevity and general life expectancy of the populationThe practice of good health behaviours may expand the number of years during which a person may enjoy life free of chronic diseaseMay begin to make a dent in the more than 148 billion that was spent in Canada in 2006 on health services an increase of more than 300 over the past 23 years health habits usually develop in childhood and begin to stabilize around age 11 or 12 Primary Preventionthe first and most common strategy has been to employ behaviourchange methodsthe second more recent approach is to keep people from developing poor health habits in the first place Factors That Influence The Practice Of Health BehavioursSocioeconomic Factorsyounger more affluent better educated people under low levels of stress with high levels of social support typically practice better health habits than people under higher levels of stress with fewer resources such as those in low social classAgehealth habits are good in childhood deteriorate in adolescence and young adulthood but improve again among older peopleGendergender differences in healthrelated behaviours which may vary by age or developmental stageValuesculture differencesPersonal Controlpeople who are predisposed to see health as under personal control may be more likely to practise good health habits than those who regard their health as due to chance factorsSocial Influencefamily friends workplacemediaPersonal Goalsheavily tied to health habitsPerceived Symptomsmay stop health habit if a symptom seems to make one vulnerableAccess To Health Care Serviceshealth care services advice from physiciansPlaceliving in rural area may make health care access more difficult worse health habitsCognitive Factorssuch as the belief that certain health behaviours are beneficial or the sense that one may be vulnerable to an underlying illness if one does not practise a particular health behaviour Barriers To Modifying Poor Health BehavioursInstability Of Health BehavioursWhy are health habits relatively independent of each other and unstableDifferent health habits are controlled by different factorsDifferent factors may control the same health behaviour for different peopleFactors controlling a health behaviour may change over the history of the behaviourFactors controlling the health behaviour may change across a persons lifetimeHealth behaviour patterns their developmental course and the factors that change them across a lifetime will vary substantially between individualsIntervening With Children And AdolescentsSocialization Using the teachable moment Closing the window of vulnerability Adolescent health behaviours influence adult healthoResearch shows that precautions taken in adolescence may be better predictors of disease after age 45 than are adult heath behaviours Intervening With AtRisk PeopleBenefitsEarly identification of these people may prevent or eliminate poor health habits that can exacerbate vulnerabilityKnowledge of risk can provide people with info needed to monitor their own situationEfficient and effective use of health promotion dollarsEasier to identify other risk factors that may interact with the targeted factor in producing an undesirable outcomeProblemsMost people are unrealistically optimistic about their vulnerability to health risksPeople tend to view their poor health behaviours as widely shared but their healthy behaviours as more distinctiveWhen people believe that others are engaging in the same unhealthy practice they may perceive a lower risk to their healthSometimes resting positive for a risk factor leads people into needlessly hypervigilant and restrictive behaviour People may also become defensive and minimize their significance of their risk factor and avoid using appropriate services or monitoring their conditionEthical issuesPsychological disturbance may be created in exchange for instilling riskreduction behavioursSome people such as those predisposed to depression may react especially badly to the prospect or results of genetic testing for health disorders Health Promotion And The Elderlysome elderly develop drinking problems in response to agerelated issuesflu is a major cause of deathby age 80 health habits are the major determinant of whether an individual will have a vigorous or infirmed old age Attitude Change And Health BehaviourEducational Appealsmake the assumption that people will change their health habits if they have the correct infoCommunications should be colourful and vivid rather than steeped in stats and 1jargon They should also use case historiesThe communicator should be expert prestigious trustworthy likeable and 2similar to the audienceStrong arguments should be presented at the beginning and end of a message 3not in the middleMessages should be short clear and direct4Messages should state conclusions explicitly5Extreme messages produce more attitude change but only up to a point Very 6extreme messages are discountedFor illness detection behaviours such as HIV testing or obtaining a 7mammogram emphasizing the problems that may occur if it is not undertaken will be most effective For health promotion behaviours such as sunscreen use emphasizing the benefits to be gained may be more effective
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