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PSYC 319 full course lecture notes part I (36 pages) - from start of the semester until midterm

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 319
Lawrence Walker

PSYC 319 091311 ContextExamples of contemporary social problems affecting children adolescents and familiesSubstance abuseCompetence issue why are some substances legal when they could be more dangerousBullyingWhat leads to antisocial behavior Peer interactions violent TVvideo gamesDaycareWhat are the effects of daycare vs home care How are we defining daycare and home care Children are also not randomly assigned confounding factors research also confounded by ideologyChanges in familiesDecreased family size delayed marriage and childbirth single parentsObesityWhat subjects does the government value in schoolWho gets to determine what goes on in the classroomGovernment budget issue Teachers professional issueHistorical contextViews toward childhoodChanged dramatically over timeDifferent understanding of children and their developmentOrigins of applied developmental psychologyValues and emphasis of different theoriesIssues and theories occur in a social contextHistorical events attitudes and values in society at the timeAncient timesInfanticide children easily disposed ofMedieval societyInfancyadulthoodDependentindependentIncompetentcompetentMajority of children died lack of social support medical careDecreased emotional attachment to childrenth17th18 centuriesEmergence of concept of childhood due toUnique psychological educational and physical needsthIntellectual Renaissance of the 15 centuryDecreased infant mortalityIncrease prosperitychange in social structure People could improve their social standing by investing in their childrens education and welfareJohn Locke philosopher and social commentatorBritish empiricismChilds urges and passions needed to be controlledEnvironmental perspective emphasis on role of environment in inducing changeInfluence on current environmentallearning approaches behaviorismTabula rasachild is like a passive but NOT neutral blank state acted upon by the environmentPolicy implications interventionist strategy from early childhoodJeanJacques RousseauSwissFrench rationalismDevelopment is a naturally unfolding processSociety viewed as harmfulChild is good until corrupted by adult societyChild is passive Children should master things at their own rateMetaphorflowering seedInfluence on current biologicalnativist approachesPolicy implications noninterventionist strategyIndustrial revolutionShift from agrarian farming society to machine factoriesUrbanizationslumsMass migrationChildrencheap source of labor labor shortageDeplorable conditionsUS Civil WarChildren also foughtReformersWomenevangelical Christiansadvocacy for children Key ideas1 Childhood is vulnerable and need to be protected2 First public policies introduced on childrenChildhood institutionalized 1 Child labor lawsChildren have rights2 Universal primary education Provided by government imposed on families societal interest in children outweighs family interestth19 centuryBaby biographiesthPopular in 19 centuryComprehensive diariesDescriptive only and biasedNot good accounts of the rate of development but helpful for order of development Charles DarwinBaby biographyNotion of evolutionary biology and development Since then the idea of development dominated scienceRecapitulation no longer a credible ideaIndividual development captures the development of the speciesG Stanley Hall Father of child psychologyAmong the first to conduct empirical research with children instead of casual observationgave surveys to childrenShared Darwins general evolutionary viewpointFounded APA and was the first presidentEmergence of AdolescenceAgrarianindustrial society machines made youths labor dispensableIndustrialization required specialized skillsIncreased lifespanChanges in nuclear family and urbanizationdecreased support from extended familyyouth more independentUniversal education and child labor lawsAcademics became more interested in adolescenceProduct of modern culturesPreviously puberty confirmation etc was a celebration of adulthoodNew criteria for adulthoodFunctionattainment of responsible roles Statusadult privileges and status age at which we can drive drink undergo adult trial vote etcth20 centuryAlfred BinetHired by Paris school board to distinguish intellectually subnormal from normally functioning childrenFor the purpose of special instructionDevised first IQ testsNow adapted and revise StanfordBinet testIQ tests were widely used during WWI to recruit soldiersContinued focus on intelligence its assessment and its comparisonSometimes other values and characteristics are diminished in comparison to intelligenceSigmund FreudPsychoanalytic theoryEmphasis on unconscious drives and motivations negative implicit understandingsId ego superegoEarly childhood experiencesSignificant in forming personalityEmphasis on emotional maturity personalityIdentification with samesex parentIntroduced stages in psychoanalytic development oral anal OedipalElectraAppraisal
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