PSYC 319 full course lecture notes part I (36 pages) - from start of the semester until midterm

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10 Apr 2012
PSYC 319 09-13-11 Context
Examples of contemporary social problems affecting children, adolescents, and families
Substance abuse
Competence issue; why are some substances legal when they could be more dangerous?
What leads to antisocial behavior? Peer interactions; violent TV/video games
What are the effects of daycare vs. home care? How are we defining daycare and home
care? Children are also not randomly assigned (confounding factors); research also
confounded by ideology
Changes in families
Decreased family size, delayed marriage and childbirth, single parents
What subjects does the government value in school?
Who gets to determine what goes on in the classroom?
Government (budget issue)? Teachers (professional issue)?
Historical context
Views toward childhood
Changed dramatically over time
Different understanding of children and their development
Origins of applied developmental psychology
Values and emphasis of different theories
Issues and theories occur in a social context
Historical events, attitudes, and values in society at the time
Ancient times
Infanticide (children easily disposed of)
Medieval society
Infancy → adulthood
Dependent → independent
Incompetent → competent
Majority of children died (lack of social support, medical care)
Decreased emotional attachment to children
17th/18th centuries
Emergence of concept of childhood, due to:
Unique psychological, educational, and physical needs
Intellectual Renaissance of the 15th century
Decreased infant mortality
Increase prosperity → change in social structure
People could improve their social standing by investing in their children's
education and welfare
John Locke (philosopher and social commentator)
British empiricism
Child's urges and passions needed to be controlled
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Environmental perspective (emphasis on role of environment in inducing change)
Influence on current environmental-learning approaches (behaviorism)
Tabula rasa” - child is like a passive (but NOT neutral) blank state acted upon
by the environment
Policy implications: interventionist strategy (from early childhood)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Swiss-French rationalism
Development is a naturally unfolding process
Society viewed as harmful
Child is good until corrupted by adult society
Child is passive
Children should master things at their own rate
Metaphor – flowering seed
Influence on current biological-nativist approaches
Policy implications: non-interventionist strategy
Industrial revolution
Shift from agrarian farming society to machine factories
Urbanization → slums
Mass migration
Children – cheap source of labor (labor shortage)
Deplorable conditions
US Civil War
Children also fought
Women + evangelical Christians → advocacy for children
Key ideas:
(1) Childhood is vulnerable and need to be protected
(2) First public policies introduced on children
Childhood institutionalized
(1) Child labor laws
Children have rights
(2) Universal primary education
Provided by government, imposed on families (societal interest in
children outweighs family interest)
19th century
Baby biographies
Popular in 19th century
Comprehensive diaries
Descriptive only and biased
Not good accounts of the rate of development, but helpful for order of
Charles Darwin
Baby biography
Notion of evolutionary biology and development
Since then the idea of development dominated science
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Recapitulation (no longer a credible idea)
Individual development captures the development of the species
G. Stanley Hall
Father of child psychology
Among the first to conduct empirical research with children (instead of casual
observation) → gave surveys to children
Shared Darwin's general evolutionary viewpoint
Founded APA and was the first president
Emergence of Adolescence
Agrarian → industrial society (machines made youth's labor dispensable)
Industrialization required specialized skills
Increased lifespan
Changes in nuclear family and urbanization → decreased support from
extended family → youth more independent
Universal education and child labor laws
Academics became more interested in adolescence
Product of modern cultures
Previously, puberty (confirmation, etc.) was a celebration of adulthood
New criteria for adulthood:
Function – attainment of responsible roles
Status – adult privileges and status (age at which we can drive, drink,
undergo adult trial, vote, etc.)
20th century
Alfred Binet
Hired by Paris school board to distinguish intellectually subnormal from normally
functioning children
For the purpose of special instruction
Devised first IQ tests
Now adapted and revise (Stanford-Binet test)
IQ tests were widely used during WWI to recruit soldiers
Continued focus on intelligence, its assessment, and its comparison
Sometimes other values and characteristics are diminished in comparison
to intelligence
Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalytic theory
Emphasis on unconscious drives and motivations (negative); implicit
Id, ego, superego
Early childhood experiences
Significant in forming personality
Emphasis on emotional maturity (personality)
Identification with same-sex parent
Introduced stages in psychoanalytic development (oral, anal,
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