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PSYC 319 full course lecture notes part II (46 pages) - from after midterm to final

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PSYC 319
Lawrence Walker

PSYC 319 101811 Marital TransitionsDivorce remarriage and singleparentingChanges in familiesFamily law and public policyDivorce custody support taxation tax benefitsChildren report parents marital transitions among their most painful and traumatic life experiencesParental death less stressful than divorceActive abandonment greater conflict weaker support systemsNofault divorce 1968increase in divorce rate38 of Canadian marriages end in divorceChildren spend on average 5 years in singleparent home before remarriage or cohabitation75 of divorced parents eventually remarry second marriages are less stable and divorce rate is even higherComplexity of custody arrangements varies dramaticallyIncrease in singleparent familiesAbout 25 of Canadian children are in singleparent householdsDifferent patterns across ethnic groups eg almost half of AfricanAmerican children live in singleparent familiescrisis Increase in commonlaw familiesDecrease in number of formal marriagesSamesex marriages 2003Traditional families relatively rare 20Eg father working and mother homemakerDecline in Canadian family size Average18 children1 of families have 5 or more childrenDiscussionWhat would be the most important design features of research on marital transitionsVariety of confounding factors that would produce a certain outcome reciprocal influences of children and parentsMothers are more likely to get custody of children and their standard of living are likely to drop when they take custody of the childrenEffects could also be due to povertyLongterm effects of divorceChaseLansdale CherlinKiernan 1995Some children harmed some resilient some have initial difficulties but then recoverProspective longitudinal design better controlNCDS National Child Development StudyAll children born in UK during a 1 week period in March 1958Interview with mother at birthPsychological assessments at 7 11 16 and 23 yearsLarge number of researchers BID to get their research question on the survey but survey has to be shortso limited conclusionsSample restricted to intact families at age 7 N10353Parental divorce between ages 7 and 16 N382This was BEFORE nofault divorce thus divorce rate was much lowerConstructsSocioeconomic statusEmotional problemsSchool achievementMental health outcome measure not comprehensiveRutters Malaise Inventoryrange of emotional disorders24 items clinical cutoff 7Other outcome measures not presentDivorceMental healthAge 7Lower SESmore emotional problemsLower school achievementPredicts at age 23Higher malaise scoresControlling for SES emotional problems and school achievement at age 7 parental divorce STILL predicts poorer mental health at age 23Increase in malaise scores by 20Moderate longterm negative impactIncrease in risk of psychopathology above clinical cutoff by 39NontrivialNotelarge majority do not exhibit serious emotional disorderPathways of divorce over timeDivorce between ages 716 significantly predicts Malaise age 23Divorce between ages 716 significantly predicts Emotional problems poorer school achievement lower SES age 16WhyEmotional problems poorer school achievement lower SESage 16 significantlypredicts Malaise age 23When emotional problems poorer school achievement and lower SES was controlled for the predictive relationship between divorce and malaise disappearsEmotional problems poorer school achievement and lower SES are mediatorsTHUS the effect of divorce is indirectthrough negative life trajectories in adolescencePSYC 319 102511 Culture and Identity DevelopmentMitigating dissemination coalesceErikson8 stages of psychosocial developmentStage 5 identity vs role confusionEmerges during late adolescenceDue to increased cognitive capacity undertaking of new roles questioning of who one isIdentityIntegrated sense of selfWho am IWhat do I likeWhat am I going to do with my lifeWhat is different about meComponents1 Social2 PersonalSocial identitySomething that can be assessed visuallySocial groupsconstructs we are a part of these labels we may or may not endorseEg student son friend female young oldPersonal identityin the eye of the beholderManner in which one defines himselfherselfEg Personality traits goals desires subset of social identities that the individual actually endorsesAssessment of identityHow do you tap into identityThe life storyThe life storyWhat is itCoherent perception of ones past present and futureDescribing ones personal history present and future that makes sense to oneselfFreeflowing personal trajectoryWhy is it importantThe way the life story is told relates to psychological adjustmentHarsh implications if dissociated from ones pastLack of selfcontinuityMeasuring selfcontinuityGive participants a storyask them to describe selfcontinuity in the lives of story characters
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