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Midterm

Psych 350 midterm 1 (NOTES FOR ALL TEXT CHAPTERS AND LECTURE NOTES)

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 350
Professor
Jason Winters
Semester
Summer

Description
MAY 14 Why study sex - Essential bio fxn - Health/well-being - Most ppl do it (or will do it) - It’s the focus of much attention - Social issues Text - Improving understanding - Learn how ppl communicate on sexual topics increase chance of satisfying relationships - Learn abt sexual diversity more understanding - Education abt contraceptives, STIs - For future career : health/contact with others - To educate others - Think critically abt research Paradox: little scientific investigation HISTORY AND THE BASICS (CH1 AND CH7) - History of sex mostly written by men (from gender of inequality)double standards Brief history - Ancient Hebrews- procreation and pleasure, monogamy, polygamy - Ancient Greece- homosexuality, bisexuality, pederasty (sex w/boys), prostitution (courtesans/concubines; slaves) o Lots of sex with anybody/everybody o women either mothers, concubines, courtesans o observational studies began w/Aristotle  2 fundamentally diff methods by which organisms reproduces themselves: sexual/asexual  Thought only fathers contributed to formation of fetus sexism (*prejudice/discrimination directed against 1 sex, usually women) - Ancient Rome- orgies (Caligula movie) o Time of excess  entertainment, sex, food, etc - Early Christians- sex for procreation only non procreative sex as sin virginity impt o Sexual ethics= *right and wrong sexual behaviour o 1. Sex-negative tradition- all sexual behaviour sinful because driven by passion rather than will o 2. Aquinas- procreative sex w/in marriage = part of God’s design other forms of sexual expression forbidden by ecclesiastical law - The far east o Muslims/islams- sex w/in marriage, no premarital sex, polygamy  No one person who makes the rules= behaviors very variable depending on diff areas/grps o Taoists- sexuality and sprirituality (yin and yang)  Men try to extract yin energy from female partners by having sex for as long as possible  Sperm as sacred and shouldn’t be wasted o Hindus- sex as virtuous and natural, celebrated sex linked w/spirituality - Middle ages (500-1500 AD) – lust, wet dreams, sexual dysfxn blamed on witchcraft - Protestant reformation (Calvin, 16 century)- sex not only for procreation, but to enhance the marital relationship (extramarital/premarital sex still punished) o Renaissance  Anatomists (*studies structure of body) described external/internal reproductive organs (still male perspective hampered process) o 17 century  Ham- semen under microscope spem/spermatozoa  Harsoeker (^student) suggested contained homunculi  Harvey- predicted existence of female ovum not observed until 19 century though o Enlightenment (18 century)  Sought to replace traditional authority w/values of reason/freedom  Morality should be placed on the “greatest happiness to the greatest number”sex  Early feminists argued that women had right to sexual pleasure  Novels, Casanova (autobiography, public abt condoms) - Victorian era (19 century)- extreme sexual repression, marital duty for procreation and men’s pleasure o Chastity belts  Keep ppl from being unfaithful (mostly for women)  Keep ppl from masturbating (mostly for men) o Nowadays chastity belts eroticized o Sex research emerged late 19 century  Rise of middle classdemand for education abt sex  Physicians began to specialize in sexual matters  sex researchers (*scientific study of sex) and sexologists (*scientific study of sex esp sexual dysfxns) - Present- relatively sex +ve and progressing Hysteria - Comes from Greek word “hustera”= womb mental problem caused by womb - Because o Docs all men tho Male body was ideal human form womb migrated around causing havoc - 19 century : caused by lack of sexual stimulation tried to relive condition - Finally Freud- hysteria was in the mind BUT retained sexual connection (from child molestation) History of sex research - Richard freiherr von krafft-ebing o German psychiatrist and sexologist o Psychopathia Sexualis (1886) o 1 to document things about sex o Pt of view= non-procreative sex was perversion o BUT set us up for some sexual disorders he called perversions o Paradoxia= *sexual desire at wrong time of life o Anesthesia= *insufficient sexual desire (still in DSM) mostly attached to women o Hyperesthesia= *excessive sexual desire o Paraesthesia= *sexual desire for the wrong goal/object (now called fetishes, sadism, masochism) - Ellis o Personal accts of unusual forms of sexual expression o Correspondence w/individuals from diff countires o More of plea for tolerance of sexual diversity than attempt to explain/treat - Sigmund freud o Psychodynamic theory, libido, penis envy o Origin of sexual problems in operations of unconscious mind (esp during childhood)  Autoerotic/homosexual phases and incestuous desires directed toward one or the othe rparent o Dark force inside us that would run rampant if we didn’t control w/conscience o Perversions= *obsolete term for atypical sexual desire/behavior- viewed as mental disorder o Neuroses= *mental disorders (eg. depression) that are in Freudian theory, strategies for coping w/repressed sexual conflicts o *unconscious thoughts and interpersonal relationships as key to sexual orientation o *getting adult sexuality was long, sometimes chaotic drama in which unconscious mind takes leading role - ^VS Hirschfeld o 2 neural centers in brain – responsible for sexual attraction to men/women  During early fetal life, all humans possessed both centers, but later, one centre grew and dominated, while other regressed  Sex hormones channeled dev in one way or another  Genetic predisposition o *reduce mind to relatively simple nonmental phenomena (nerve cells, hormones) controlled sexual dev in a manner that was independent of family relationships o *getting sexuality unfolded mechanistically w/out active participation - Alfred Kinsey st o 1 major published large sex survey o Found :  Prevalence of homosexuality  Extramarital sex  Multiple orgasm o 1 to recognize sexual orientation on a scale - Masters and Johnson (1950s) o 1 to look at physiological sexual response in men and women o Intercourse, masturbation, artificial stimulation in the lab o Men/women responded quite similarly4-phase model of sexual response - Cultural anthropologists investigated non-Western perspectives on sex o Malinowski – field studies on Trobriand Islands  Matrineal society- mom contributed to making of fetus  Sexual matters at the center of islanders’ culture, freely discussed o Mead- Samoan people teen girls have many partners - Feminists campaigned for sexual reforms o Feminism= *belief that women entitled to same social, economic, political rights as menorganized pursuit of these goals o Sndger (pioneer) – contraceptives Planned Parenthood Federation based on this o 2 Wave (70s) – woman’s entitlement to know her own body, seek sexual pleasure, terminate pregnancy, free from sexual assault/harassment  Diff betw sexes established by learning/culture Greer: downplay bio factors  OR emphasized men/women fundamentally distinct and women superior (Gilligan)  Bright (1980)- lesbian sex magazine that celebrated unorthodox sex o 3 wave (1980s) – diverse minorities - Biomedical research (20 century) o Practical impact on ppl’s sex lives o Butenandt and Ruzicka (1920s) – identification and synthesis of steroid sex hormones  led to introduction of oral contraceptives  understanding of role hormones play in dev of reproductive cancers o advances in reproductive physiology IVF o Microbiology  effective treatments for many STIs o ^help w/more +ve attitude toward sexuality o Neuroscientists- structural/fxnal/chemical differences betw brains of men/womenoriginate in prenatal dev and partially explain psych diff and sexual orientation Methods of studying sexuality - Biomed research o Focuses on underlying mechs of sex o Use animals  explore fxns/structure of bodily sys  sexual behaviors o modern imaging tech and decoding of human genome o Study - National Institutes of Mental Health NIMH  Repeatedly scanned brains of 300 teenagers using MRI  Structure of boys’ and girls’ brains diverged during adol - Psychology o Social psych  Study of how we think abt, influence, relate to other ppl  Descriptive studies – observation of some behavior/assessment of attitudes  Experimental study – quantitative, control group, stat analysis o Cog psych  Study of internal mental processes  Eg. low sexual desire in older woman (not a physical thing) o Evo psych  How evo has molded genetic endowment to favor certain patterns of sexual feelings and behaviors  Pawlowski et al, 2008  How men/women crossed street  Presence of women nearby increased likelihood that man would attempt risky crossing  Presence of men didn’t make a diff to women o Cultural psych/psychological anthropologists  Influence of ethnic/cultural diversity on thought, behavior, interpersonal relationships  Fieldwork  Criticize tendency of US researchers to study whoever is near at hand don’t agree w/evo psychologists  Single paternity vs partible paternity (*2more men may be fathers of same child)  S. America  Man’s semen remains in women’s body indefinitely after sex if diff men have sex w/her before child, all contribute to making of child o Clinical psych  Emotional, behavioral, personality problems  often have sexual element  Sex therapists – problems that interfere w/enjoyment of sex  Marriage and family counselors – problems that may arise out of sexual difficulties/non sexual areas of relationship but interfere w/sexual relations  Gottman and Gottman o Videotaped couples early in marriage to discuss sensitive topics o “harsh start ups”  later breakups - Sociologists o Scientific study of society o Connection betw sex and society  study of human sexualty by linking sexual behaviors and attitudes of individuals to larger social structures o Mech by which social structures mold individual feelings and behaviors script theory =*analysis of sexual/other behaviors as the enactment of socially instilled roles  Dating scripts- Bartoli & Clark – male dating scripts= expectation of sex//women’s = responsibility of setting limits on sexual interaction o Sex surveys  National Health and Social Life Survey NHSLS (US)  National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and lifestyles NSSAL (British)  National Survey of Sxual Health and Behavior NSHB (Indiana)  Problems:  Sampling issue  Respondents reluctant to divulge details shame (use comp)  Slight diff in working of Qs (surveys that ask same Qs over and over) o Ethnographic fieldwork – immersing in subject’s lives (eg. Sanders- observe lives of off-street prostitutes as health outreach worker) - Economic approach o weights costs and benefits of sexual encounters/sexual relationships o sex ratio influences sexual negotiations - sex research is challenging o difficult to obtain appropriate subjects o difficult to phrase survey Qs o difficult to extrapolate from animal research o difficult to obtain funding Definitions - Sex o 1. Anatomy – the male/female sex o 2. Context o 3. Sexual behavior  May include genital and non-genital sexual expression  May/may not include sexual arousal and orgasm - Identity o Sexual orientation= *to whom one is sexually/romantically attractied to  Heterosexual, homo, bisexual, asexual, etc o Gender= *state as male/female (personal, social, legal)  Behaviors, expectations, roles, representations, and sometimes values/beliefs that are specific to either men/women  Transgender – don’t subscribe to typical gender roles OR changing their sex to match gender identity Cross cultural diff - Canada and US o Canada more liberal and tolerant o Higher teen preg rate in US - w/in Canada o Quebec most sexually liberal (used to be most conservative)  More likely to have sexual intercourse at younger age, live as common-laws, extramarital sex o Immigrants in Canada tend to be more conservative o Culture clash eg. Arranged marriage, sex education, homosexuality, med visits for sexual health, daughters, etc. o Frequency of sex Newfoundland highest, Saskatchewan least Society, values and the law - 2007 World Congress – World Assocation for Sexual Health WAS declaration - 1. Recognize, promote, ensure, protect sexual rights for all - 2. Advance toward gender equality and equity - 3. Condemn, combat, reduce all forms of sexuality related violence - 4. Provide universal access to comprehensive sexuality education and info - 5. Ensure that reproductive health programs recognize centrality of sexual health - 6. Halt and reverse spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections STIs - 7. Identify, address and treat sexual concerns, dysfxns and disorders - 8. Achieve recognition of sexual pleasure as a component of holistic health and well-being SEX ED Religion offers diverse teachings on sexuality - Catholicism (Conservative) o Sex-negative BUT some changes recently (help w/marital bond, condoms permitted) o Remains opposed to nonmarital sex, homosexuality, most forms of contraception o Moral absolutism- belief that there’s an objectively right/wrong way for all humans to behave o *many American Catholics ignore restrictive teachings - Protestant o Most conservative = Evangelical (like Catholics – but differs by congregation) o “Mainline” protestant – more liberal more concerned w/social justice o Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day saints (Mormons) like Evangelical - Judaism o Orthodox jews respect traditional Jewish law (halakhah) – no sex outside marriage, aims to reduce temptation o Conservative Judaism (predominant in past in US) more liberal on sexual matters homo okay o Reform Judaism – very liberal responsibility for sexual choices w/in individual conscience - Islam o Sex-+ve, celibacy actively discouraged BUT still limited to marriage and only man can have more than one spouse o Mostly in impoverished, tradition-bound societies extreme punishments under religious law to sexual offenders - Hinduism (India) o Multi-threaded religious tradition – no single founder, no over-arching laws governing sexual behavior o Sex-+ve – sexual love (kama) considered 1 of 4 main purposes of life o BUT sexuality in confines of duty/right behaviour (marriage only arranged marriagesno choice of sex partners) - Buddhism o Little specific to say abt sexuality o Marriage = secular institution o Polygamy discouraged but not forbidden - ^*religions frequently adapt themselves to changes in social attitudes concerning sexuality o interpretation of these texts is usually responsive to beliefs and needs of particular society in which they are embedded Sources of info - Parents: timing, quality - School (highest ranked) - Friends - Siblings - Media: entertainment - Internet (lowest ranked) - Pornography: mechanics vs fantasy Canada - Ed is responsibility of the provinces qualty and type of sex ed varies from province to province - SIECCAN has guidelines for sex ed (based on sex-positive model) up to provinces to decide whether or not to use those guidelines - Most programs focus on physiology, risk and danger - Variation: teacher, region (ie. School board) Abstinence-only sex ed - Promoted by some on the religious right based on religious doctrine: purity, virtuosity, obligation - Little influence on sex ed I nCaanda Canadian gov doesn’t support abstinence only - Huge influence on sex ed in the US – Congress spent $1.5 billion on abstinence-only sex ed during the Bush years o Foreign policy/aid to other countries to promote abstinence-only sex ed - Some religious groups also assert that teaching sex ed should be left to the parents, not something that happens at school - However, religious/conservative parents are least likely to discuss sex (less comfy, less knowledge, shame/guilt, etc) - typically MAY 16 Abstinence-only sex ed cont - Kirby, 2008 o Meta-analysis of sex ed from around the world (including Canada) o 56 studies included 8 abstinence-only, 48 comprehensive sex ed o Results  Age of 1 intercourse:  Abstinence-only no effect  Comprehensive- works better  Condom use/STIs- comprehensive use condoms more - Virginity pledges o +/doing what it’s supposed to do st  On avg, later 1 vaginal intercourse, esp if peers also took pledge (18 mon) o -/not doing what it’s supposed to do  At least as likely (in some studies, more likely) to have oral/anal sex  Less likely to use a condom  Equally as likely to have STIsless likely to seek med help (problem because most STIs benign but silently causing damage)  “virgins” who took pledge much more likely to have anal sex than those “virgins” who didn’t take the pledge o Similar to “purity balls” girls dress up and pledge virginity Effectiveness of comprehensive sex ed - Teen preg rates have dropped 36% betw 1996 and 2006 o 27.9 pregnancies per 1000 in 2006, 44.2 in 1996 o Lowest rates compared to US (61.2), the UK (60.3) and Sweden (31.4) - US preg rates double Canada’s - Dropping teen abortions rates - Increased use of contraceptives - Attributed to more relaxed attitudes towards sex (+) o Better communication w/parents o Improved sexual confidence o Better empowerment to seek services related to sexuality - Sex ed mostly abt avoiding –ve aspectsshould also focus on +ve things o Sexual SE related to increased sexual pleasure, better relationships o Confidence/empowerment o Openness o Acceptance (of others and self) o Intimacy and love o Relationships - *Ask students what they want and need to know - Age at 1 intercourse o Grade 9/11  Girls- stable  Boys- older o 15-17 yrs Girls/boys stable Sex advice - Savage love (Dan Savage) - Betty Dodson and Carlin Ross - The Guide to getting it on ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY (CH2, 3) Us and our genitals - Psychology? – disorders, behaviors associated - Hang-ups, misunderstandings - Shame and guilt - Public vs private - Massive diversity – vs what popular culture promotes (cookie cutter) - Pornography - Homologous structures- found in male/female genitals that come from the same embryonic tissues Female - External genitalia (vulva) o Mons Veneris (pubis)  Fatty tissue that covers the joint of the pubic bones  In front of the body, below abdomen and above the clitoris  Acts as cushion during intercourse (protects pubic bone)  Ample nerves, sensitive to touch o Labia majora  Large folds that run downwards from the mons on the outside of the vulva  When close together, typically hide the other parts of the genitals (ie. Vaginal opening, urethra, for some women, the labia minora) provide protection  Outer portion covered w/pubic hair, inner portion hairless  Very sensitive to touch o *Aesthetics  Pubic hair removal (anecdotally)  Looks better  Feels better (sensitivity)  Better for oral sex  Doesn’t hold odor  Easier to clean  Vajazzling  Dying o Labia minora  Hairless lips that sit inside the labia majora  Surround the urethral and vaginal opening  Outer surface merge w/the labia majora and at the top, join w/the clitoral hood  When sexually aroused, engorge w/bloodbecome swollen and darker= vasocongestion  Huge variation in size shape, symmetry, colour  Avg 2-10cm long, 0.5-5cm wide  Also very sensitive to touch o Clitoris  Only sex organ whose only known fxn is to create pleasure  Clitoral shaft2 corpora cavernosa (spongy tissue, homologous) that becomes engorged w/blood and erect when sexually stimulated  Glans part that is visible, corpus spongiosum  Clitoral hood covers the exposed part of the shaft and most of the glans  Highly innervatedvery sensitive to touch (bundles of nerves)  Shaft mostly hidden in tissue behind where it protrudes 2 internal extensions (crura) diverge backward/downward from clitoral shaft  Avg size: 2.4 cm long, 0.5cm wide  No association betw size and sensitivitymore accessible  Most sensitive part of the vulva and vagina  Can by uncomfortably sensitive to touch until woman is aroused (ie, receptive)  Smegma- substance the forms under the clitoral hood  Mix of body oils and exfoliated skin  Looks like cheese o *labia minora – labiaplasty  Dramatically increasing # women seeking plastic surgery for their labia minora (reduction/symmetry)  Other surgeries: vaginal tightening, liposuction of the mons veneris, hymen reconstruction, unhooding the clitoris  “designer vagina”, “genital enhancement”, “vaginal rejuvenation”, “tops and bottoms”  Ads of surgeons who perform these procedures may encourage –ve self perceptions  Dutch study- Laan et al., 2011  Women viewed 80 photographs illustrating diversity of female genital anatomy  After, women’s evaluations of own genitals improved significantly o *genital mutilation  Prevalent in 29 countries  Particulary w/Islamic cultures  Mostly to prevent sex/pleasure  Must do or else won’t get married  Usually unhygienic conditions  *Sunnah – least invasive  Clitoral hood removed  Analogous to male circumcision  *clitordectomy  Parts of Africa and Middle East  Removal of clitoris  Puberty ritual  Attempt to maintain girls’ chastity  * infibulation  Practiced widely in Sudan and Somalia  Entire removal of clitoris and vulva  Vaginal opening sutured togethersmall passage left for menstruation  Opened by force when married  *stats  Cause more trauma if tell woman why this is bad for them  Some actually more pleasure  Some surgeries done so poorly, clitoris not removed entirely, etc. o Vaginal opening (introitus)  Lies below, larger than urethral opening o Hymen  Fold of tissue that surrounds/partially covers the vaginal opening  Varies widely  Normal, annular, septate, cribriform, imperforate  can tear even w/out sex  hymen and virginity  in many cultures, intact hymen considered evidence of virginity  may be incomplete in some girls, may tear during exercise, during sexual exploration, during insertion of a tampon  often remain intact even after 1 instance of intercourse  virginity verification- med professional/elder in family examines woman before marriage  artificial hymens- kits inserted that makes it look like hymen  hymen restoration- surgically reconstruct hymen o Vestibule  Area inside of the labia minora, region around urethra and vaginal opening  Also very sensitive  w/in vestibule = clitoris, urethral opening, vaginal opening o Perineum  Skin and underlying tissues betw vaginal opening and anus o Urethral opening  Connected to the bladder via the urethra  Located above vaginal opening and below the clitoris  Urinary tract infectionsprone to bacterial infections due to proximity to vagina and anus  Cystits- inflammation of the bladder caused by UTI  Honeymoon cystits- tugging on bladder and urethral wall caused by intercourse o Underlying structures  Sphincters- muscular rings, vagina and anus (also in other parts of body)  Crura- wing-shaped structures that attach the clitoris to the pubic bone beneath  Internal part of the clitoris corpus cavernosa tissue  Vestibular bulbs- erectile tissue, extending down sides of vaginal opening  Engorge w/blood during sexual arousalswelling the vulva and lengthening vagina  Swelling contributes to physiological sexual pleasure for both partners - Internal genitalia o Vagina  Fibromuscular tubular tract  Typically 7.5-12.5cm/6” (penis around same size) deep at restexpands in length and width during sex and childbirth  Vaginal wall- highly elastic 3 layers  Inner lining (vaginal mucosa) lubrication forms on its surface during sexual arousal as the tissue of vaginal wall become engorged w/blood  Intermediate muscular layer  Outer fibro-elastic layer  Outer 3 (near opening) – diff structure than inner portion  tigher/more muscular, more innervated Few nerve endingsinternal 2/3 insensitive to touch  Sensitive to pressure, but not touch  Colonized by a mutually symbiotic flora of microorganisms that protect its host from disease-causing microbes  Candidiasis – fungus  Self-cleaning no need to douche/use deodorants  Discharge/small/taste of discharge- varies w/time of month  Healthy at pH of 4-5 (acidic)  Undergoes changes during arousal  vasocongested like labia minora pink to purple (photocell)  muscularature in vaginal walls + erection of vestibular bulbs vagina wrap more tightly around penis  lubrication – 2 fxns o near-neutral pH  better for sperm o easier for coitus, more pleasurable o *lubricants  Water-based  + : easy to clean, safe w/all sex toys  - : rinse off in water, needs to be re-applied, can contain glycerin  Silicone-based  + : doesn’t rinse off in water, lasts much longer w/out reapplication, better for anal sex  - : messy, can damage silicone sex toys, taste, stain sheets  Oil-based  + : lasts forever  - : can’t be used w/sex toys/condoms, really messy and difficult to clean up o *Kegels  Exercise of the pubococcygeus (PC) muscles (muscle floor of the vaina)  Initially intended for women who were incontinent after childbirth  Enhance sexual experience for both partners o *G spot  Named after Dr. ernest Grafenberg  Soft mass of tissues 2.5-5cm from vaginal entrance  Intense sensation, vaginal orgasm  Controversial  Study showing denser tissues in one area = gspot  Twin study (british study) show twins both having gspot due to chance  Probably stimulus of backside of clitoris o *female ejaculation  Intense stimulation of the Gspot, typically, resulting in the expulsion of fluid from the urethra  Ppl in research divide into 2 groups: Low-volume (dribble) vs high-volume  Thought to originate from the Skene’s (paraurethral gland) which surrounds part of the urethra  Similar to secretions from prostrate o Cervix  Lower end of uterus  Os= opening abt the size of a pencil expands during child birth  Cervical canal opens into cavity of uterus proper  Cervical cancer  Risk factors: human papillomavirus HPV, many sexual partners, smoking, low SES  Best defense= regular pap smears, HPV vaccine  Symptoms: loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, pelvic pain, back pain, leg pain, single swollen leg, heavy bleeding from vagina, leaking of urine/feces from vagina and bone fractures  Colposcopy- *examination of cervix w/aid of operating microscope  Genital self-examination- appearance of cervix varies around menstrual cycle (due to changes in cervical mucus) and from woman to woman o Uterus  Where fertilized ovum implants  3 layers  Perimetrium  Myometrium- involuntary muscles (labor and myometrial cramps during period)  Endometrium- o Switch betw 2 reproductive fxns  Transport of sperm up reproductive tract to site of fertilization  Site of implantation/nourishment of an embryo o richly supplied by blood vessels and glands o formation of lining during menstrual cyclesheds if no fertilized ovum presentmenstrual bleeding (shedding) o structure changes over menstrual cyclevisible sign of reorganization= menstruation o endometriosis= grow of endrometrial-like tissue in abdominal cavity/elsewhere in reproductive sys pelvic pain, maybe infertility o endometrial cancer – symptoms include abnormal bleeding/spotting  uterine cancer  3x more common than cervical cancer  Only 50% more deaths  Diagnosis made on basis of cells/tissue removed from uterus  Hysterectomy= *surgical removal of uterus o Fibroids= non-cancerous tumors arising from smooth muscle cells of uterus pain or asymptomatic o Prolapse= slipping out of place of an organrisk factors: age, birth, obesity, smoking o ^2 handed pelvic examination o Oviducts (fallopian tubes)  Passageway for ova from ovaries ot the uterus  Interior surface lined w/cilia (towards uterus) sperm swim against the current  Fimbria= fringe end of oviduct, not actually fused w/ovary, cilia to draw ovum into oviduct  Tubal ligation- tie off fallopian tubes so ova can’t pass  Ectopic pregnancy= implanation of the ovum in the fallopian tubes cause rupture in tubes and damage mostly permanent o Ovaries  1. Produce oocytes (ova)  Abt 2,000,000 at birth  400,000 past puberty  Follicles- hold oocytes – 1 bursts/mon, also secrete hormones  Avg women will release 400 ripened ova over lifetime  2. Produce hormones (sex steroids derived from cholesterol)  Estrogens (estradiol)- promotes physio changes during puberty and controls menstrual cycle  Progesterone- controls menstrual cycle and stimulates thickening (proliferation0 of the endrometrium (for pregnancy) (**chart in text- only need to know for hormones discussed in class)  Ovarian cancer- risk factors: age, family history, cancer-promoting genes  Early stages= asymptomatic  Symptoms: abdominal swelling, constant feeling to urinate/defecate, digestive problems, pain  Diagnosis: genetic testing, measuring blood levels of a marker  Treatment: surgery for tumor, chemo  *survival rate low  Ovarian cysts (fluid-filled sacs) – cause pain  Reproductive age- normal ovarian follicles that haven’t ovulated/larger than usual  Prepubescent/postmenopausal- sign of cancer  Postcystic ovary syndrome PCOS – ovaries secrete high levels of androgens  Irregular menstruation, infertility, male-like pattern of facial/body hair  Not curable – but can use contraceptive pills to control  Menarche (*early onset of menstruation), late menopause, not have children, oesity, prolonged hormone replacement therapy o Pelvic inflammatory disease PID- infection of female reproductive tract, usually from STIs PRINCIPLE SEX HORMONES AND ACTIONS Class/subclass Name Where produced Main targets Main actions Sex steroids Androgens Testosterone Gonads, adrenal Widespread - Masculinizes body/brain during cortex in fetal dev and pub body/brain - anabolic effects- build up of tissue/muscles, increases O2- carrying capacity of blood - Maintains sex drive - Feedback inhibition of gonadotropins Others - armpit/pubic hair - DHT Estrogens Estradiol Gonads Widespread - feminizes in - contributes to menstrual cycle body/brain - increases density of bone - ends growth of limb bones at puberty - feedback inhibition of gonadotropins - maintains sex drive? Others - anatomical changes at puberty - protect against blood clotting - male fertility: promote maturation/concentration of sperm in epidiymis Progestins Progesterone Ovary (corpus Uterus - contributes to menstrual cycle luteum), placenta - maintains preg
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