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PSYC 300 Midterm 2 and 3 Lecture, Textbook notes

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PSYC 350
Jason Winters

MAY 28 Conditioning may influence arousalClassicalpavlovian conditioningassociative learningCanadian study o Showed men pic of moderately attractive nude woman o 1 Just looked at pic o 2 Looked at pic CS and watch highly arousing video US o over time grp 2 more aroused by pic alone CRNetherlands study o 1 Women wvibrator and subliminal showing of pic of hetero couple having sex o 2 Shown pic separately not subliminal after turning vibrator off o test photo unaccompanied by vibrator elicit more genital blood flow in grp 2 Sexual responseFreud o Clitoral orgasm immature ie Childish o Vaginal orgasm mature ie AdultKinsey 40s50s o Womenmen similar in anatomy and physio but women lesser sexual capacityMasters and Johnson 60s o Claimed that womens and mens orgasms are far more similar than diff ie physiologically the same o Claimed that womens capacity far exceeded mens ie ability to have multiple orgasms until total exhaustion o see graphs on slide 4 stages of Sexual response cycle diagrams Most typical in men1 Excitement o Women vasocongestion erection heart rate blood pressure tenting effect uterus elevates win pelvis o Men penile erection contraction of cremaster muscle to elevate testicles2 plateau high state of arousal o Men variable to plateau maintenance before orgasmPrecum from bulbourethral gland testicles elevate fartherswell muscle tensiono Women thickeningtightening of outer vaginal canal grips penis more tightlyorgasmic platformClitoral glans disappears under hood breasts swollen myotonia general increase in muscle tension 3 Orgasm4 resolution sexual arousal drops off Slower if no orgasmmen also have refractory period unable to be aroused shorter for young meno Refractory periodearly partabsolutemaybe followed by relative refractory period can be aroused by stronger than normal stimuliWomen more complex o 1 Same as men o 2 Go through excitementmeaders through plateauno orgasm o 3 Sexual excitement jumps up in stages skips plateaus sudden orgasm resolution Problems wMastersJohnsons modelDo physio markers of arousal correspond to psychsubjective arousal o Mens sensations tied to genitals but not womenWhere does sexual desire fit inshould precede arousal o Men desire arousal o Women sexual desire not to engage in sexual behaviour instead interest in sex flows from wish for intimacy when physical interactions begin genitalsfeedback stimulus that reinforces sexual interestOrgasm o subjective experienceintense pleasure and release at sexual climaxaccompany physio responses o Similar in menwomen o Felt as brief series of muscle contractions in genital areabut sensations usually radiates out to involve other parts of body o Blood pressure resp rate heart rate all peak o PurposeMen ejaculationWomen dont necessarily need to happen for reproductionArtifact of evolution homologous tissueSignal sexual satisfactiondevotionOrgasmcontractions Pull sperm into cervix to increase odds of pregnancy Both sexes promotes bondingphysio pleasureoxytocin o WomenNot all women experience 510 cant many more only experience orgasm irregularlySituation dependentsexual SE anxiety shameIntensity of stimulationSensing her body put focus away from orgasm and more on body sensations Most women dont orgasm through penetrative intercourse only 25need clitoral stimulationVaginal vs clitoral orgasmmythKomisarukWhippleo Clitoral orgasms more conc around clitoral area o Vaginal orgasms more involve entire bodyo Direct stimulation of cervix o blended orgasmDiff in feeling from diff regions being stimulated BUT not diff kinds of orgasm an orgasm is an orgasm MastersJohnson rhythmic contractions of muscles around outer part of vagina key physio sign of orgasm are same no matter how orgasm is triggeredo Multiple orgasmsDescends to plateau phase then back upWomen not necessarily more satisfied wmultiple Serial multiple Several orgasms in a row one directly after another only few sec in betw rareSequential multiple occurs in sequence typically separated by a few min o Brain imaging suggests where orgasm may be experienced Dutch Studyuse PET scans for menScans in 2 conditions1 When subject manually stimulated by female partner but no orgasm2same when was experiencing orgasmmost active regionzone in midline of brain including thalamusalso active during heroin rushContains many neurons that use dopamine as neurotransmitteractivity in cerebral cortex decreases greatlyRepeat study wwomenSame areas of brainin particular nucleus accumbens win basal ganglia part of reward sys o OxytocinBoth men and womens orgasms accompanied by surges of oxytocin from pituitary1 Contraction of smooth muscles2 Acts on brainfeelings of pleasureBlocking oxytocin physio part of orgasm pretty normal but decrease in pleasureUse oxytocin injections to help worgasmSEXUAL BEHAVIOUR CH 5 144147 CH 6 Fantasiesimagined sexual experiences during waking hoursCommon mode of sexual arousal acute psych state of excitement marked by sexual feelings of attractiondesires physio changes May deal wactual past experiences purely imagines experiences or a mixture of both May occur spontaneously or be intentionalRandom during masturbation or while wpartnersLess constrained by social consequences than overt sexual behaviourElaboratesimpleFantasy vs reality Prevalence o Collegeaged women 510 timesday o Collegeaged men 718 timesday o Metaanalyses95 of pl sexually fantasize on avg same rates for menwomen men think abt sex as much as food sleep o Study CameronBiber 19734000 menwomen asked if thought abt sex win previous 5 min1425 yr olds 52 of men 39 of women2655 yr olds 25 of men 14 of womeno Winters et al 2010women 981 men 996ignore survey in textFantasiesSexual intercourseOralgenital sexHaving intercourse in unusual positionsArtificial devicesBondageForbidden lovermistress in sexual adventuresDressing in erotic garmentshomosexual fantasiesalmost 13 of straight men Being forced to submitmore women
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