Chapter 6 Independent Questions
I. Theories of Social and Personality Development
A. Psychoanalytical Perspectives
1. (a) Identify the reported results of Harlow and Zimmerman’s (1959) studies with the monkeys
reared with surrogate mothers.
In this study, infant monkeys were separated from their mothers at
birth. The experimenters placed two different kinds of “surrogate” mothers in their cages. The
monkeys received all their feedings from a wire mother with a nursing bottle attached. The other
mother was cov- ered with soft terrycloth. The researchers found that the monkeys approached
the wire mother only when hungry. Most of the time, they cuddled against the cloth mother and
ran to it whenever they were frightened or stressed. Subsequent studies with human infants
correlat- ing maternal feeding practices with infant adjustment suggested that the infant’s social
relationships are not based solely on either nursing or weaning practices (Schaffer & Emerson,
(b) Why does your textbook conclude that this study provides evidence to support Erikson’s
ideas rather than Freud’s?
Because of Harlow and Zimmerman’s experiment.
Nursing and weaning are important, he con- ceded, but they are only one aspect of the overall
social environment. Erikson claimed that responding to the infant’s other needs by talking to
him, comforting him, and so on, was just as important. He proposed that the first 2 years
comprise a period during which the infant learns to trust the world around him or becomes
cynical about the social environment’s ability to meet his needs—the trust versus mistrust
(c) View the following video of Harlow and Zimmerman’s studies and record the research
findings presented in the videos (some findings should overlap with your response to 1a).
B. Ethological Perspectives
2. (a) Although Bowlby was a trained psychoanalyst, his theory is more consistent with
ethological perspectives. Why?
He focused on the survival value of attachment
- everyone needs attachment
He believe attachment was crucial for survival
If psychoanalyst he’d say oh the ego is just too blah and id has not balanced it out (b) Bowlby distinguished between two different types of affectionate human relationships.
What is the difference between an affectionate bond and attachment?
An affect- ional bond is defined as “a relatively long-enduring tie in which the partner is
impor- tant as a unique individual and is interchangeable with none other. In an affectional
bond, there is a desire to maintain closeness to the partner” (Bowlby, 1989, p. 711). An
attachment is a type of affectional bond in which a person’s sense of security is bound up in
the relationship. When you are attached, you feel a special sense of security and comfort in
the presence of the other, and you can use the other as a “safe base” from which to explore the
rest of the world.
(c) Define reactive attachment disorder
a disorder that appears to pre- vent a child from forming close social relationships
For example, children who are adopted after spending more than 2 years in an orphanage are
more likely to suffer from a disorder known as reactive attachment dis- order than those who
are adopted in infancy. Studies of infants whose life circumstances do not permit them to
engage in extended contact with a single caregiver.
No Easy Answers
3. Read the “No Easy Answers” research report on pp. 163-164.
(a) Why might the formation of attachment be more challenging for infants that are adopted?
For example, if two extremely shy parents adopt a child who is very outgoing, the parents
may view the child’s behaviour as difficult
or even “disturbed” in some way, rather than just different from theirs.
(b) Children adopted before _____ are not different (in any reliable way) from children who
were not adopted.
(c) Ames’s research with Canadian adopted Romanian orphans found that children who spent
more than _____ in the orphanage had more psychological and motor-behaviour problems in
comparison to non-adopted children.
4 mos (d) Lucy LeMare (2001), who is faculty at SFU, continued with Ames’s research studies and
found that RO (Romanian orphans) at 10 years of age demonstrated difficulty in some areas
but not others. Identify the area(s) of difficulty that ROs experienced along with the area(s)
where no difficulty or differences were observed.
RO children had lower average IQs and academic achievement, and more difficul- ties with
attention, learning, and peer relation- ships. Despite these challenges, the RO children were just
as well liked as any other child and the adoption experience has continued to be mutually
rewarding for both the RO children and their adop- tive families.
First, these children are better off developmentally than their peers who remain insti- tutionalized
or who are returned to biological par- ents who abused and/or neglected them (Bohman &
Sigvardsson, 1990). Further, despite increased risks, the large majority of adopted children are
indistinguishable from nonadopted children in social behaviour and emotional functioning by the
time they reach late adolescence or adulthood (Brand & Brinich, 1999; Cederblad Hook,
Irhammar, & Mercke, 1999).
A. The Parents’ Attachment to the Infant
4. Contact with a newborn is necessary but insufficient for the formation of a healthy
attachment between a parent (guardian) and infant. Rather, research suggests that synchrony
predicts the quality of parent-infant attachment.
(a) Define synchrony
a mutual, interlocking pattern of attachment behaviours shared by a parent and child
(b) What behaviours do nearly all babies and adults appear to possess that promote the
development of synchrony (assuming there are opportunities for parents and infants to
practice such interactions)?
Synchrony is like a conversation. The baby signals his needs by crying or smiling; he
responds to being held by quieting or snuggling; he looks at the parents when they look at
him. The parents, in their turn, enter into the interaction with their own reper- toire of
caregiving behaviours. One of the most intriguing things about this process is that we all seem
to know how to engage in this particular conversation and do it in very similar ways. In the
presence of a young infant, most adults will automatically display a distinctive pattern of
interactive behaviours, including smiling, raised eyebrows, and very wide-open eyes. And we
all seem to use our voices in special ways with babies. (c) Synchrony is correlated with cognitive development. Identify the research findings at 2
and 3 years of age that support this.
Developmentalists have found that 6- to 8-month-old infants whose interactions with their
parents are highly synchronous tend to have larger vocabularies at age 2 and higher intelligence
test scores at age 3 than their counterparts whose interactions are less syn- chronous (Saxon,
Colombo, Robinson, & Frick, 2000).
5. After an infant’s first weeks of life, fathers’ parental behaviour is often different from
(a) Identify the parental behaviours that are similar and different between fathers and mothers.
The father’s bond with the infant, like the mother’s, seems to depend more on the
development of synchrony than on contact immediately after birth. Aiding the develop- ment
of such mutuality is the fact that fathers seem to have the same repertoire of attach- ment
behaviours as do mothers. In the early weeks of the baby’s life, fathers touch, talk to, and
cuddle their babies in the same ways that mothers do (Parke & Tinsley, 1981).
After the first weeks of the baby’s life, however, signs of a kind of specialization of parental
behaviours begin to emerge. Fathers spend more time playing with the baby, with more
physical roughhousing; mothers spend more time in routine caregiving and also talk to and
smile at the baby more (Walker, Messinger, Fogel, & Karns, 1992). This does not mean that
fathers have a weaker affectional bond with the infant; it simply means that fathers and
mothers use different attachment behaviours in interacting with their infants.
fathers are less consistent than moth- ers in responding to infant cues; sometimes reacting and
sometimes not (Harrison, Magill-Evans, & Benzies, 1999). It has also been found that fathers
who reported that they felt accepted during their childhood were more responsive to their
offspring. Moreover, if the father’s current level of marital satisfaction was high he was more
responsive to his child’s needs, regardless of his perception of his own childhood exper-
iences (Onyskiw, Harrison, & Magill-Evans, 1997).
(b) Do 6-month-old infants adjust their attachment promoting behaviours in response to these
sex differences? Explain.
Yes, with their mothers they practice Signs of positive emotional states, such as smiling,
appear gradually and subtly when babies are interacting with their mothers. In contrast, babies
laugh and wriggle with delight in short, intense bursts in interactions with their fathers.
B. The Infants’ Attachment to the Parents
Establishing Attachment – See lecture notes
Attachment Behaviours – See lecture notes
6. What is affect dysregulation and why is it associated with insecure attachment?
an interaction pattern in which a caregiver’s emotional responses to an infant interfere with the
baby’s ability to learn how to regulate his or her emotions C. Variations in Attachment Quality
Internal Models – See lecture notes
Secure and Insecure Attachments – See lecture notes
Origins of Secure and Insecure Attachments – See lecture notes
Stability of Attachment Classifications
8. Although one’s attachment type is considered stable under what situations might it change?
However, when a child’s circumstances change in some major way—such as when the parents
divorce or the family moves—the security of the child’s attachment may change as well, either
from secure to insecure, or the reverse.
9. What happens around 4-5 years of age?
Bowlby argued, by age 4 or 5, the internal model becomes more a property of the child, more